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Data are summarized from 152 single-subject analyses of the reinforcing functions of self-injurious behavior (SIB). Individuals with developmental disabilities referred for assessment and/or treatment over an 11-year period were exposed to a series of conditions in which the effects of antecedent and consequent events on SIB were examined systematically by(More)
Neurotoxicity from accumulation of misfolded/mutant proteins is thought to drive pathogenesis in neurodegenerative diseases. Since decreasing levels of proteins responsible for such accumulations is likely to ameliorate disease, a therapeutic strategy has been developed to downregulate almost any gene in the CNS. Modified antisense oligonucleotides,(More)
Previous studies involving platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) have been based on the premise that a single cell-surface receptor binds all three isoforms of PDGF (AA, BB, and AB). It is now shown that two populations of PDGF receptor exist and can be distinguished by their ligand binding specificity. The B receptor binds only the BB dimer, whereas the(More)
BACKGROUND The CardioWest Total Artificial Heart orthotopically replaces both native cardiac ventricles and all cardiac valves, thus eliminating problems commonly seen in the bridge to transplantation with left ventricular and biventricular assist devices, such as right heart failure, valvular regurgitation, cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular clots,(More)
Pathogenic bacteria possess adhesion protein complexes that play essential roles in targeting host cells and in propagating infection. Although each family of adhesion proteins is generally associated with a specific human disease, the Dr family from Escherichia coli is a notable exception, as its members are associated with both diarrheal and urinary tract(More)
The marsh fritillary is widely distributed in Wales, with over 200 populations identified in the past 15 years. However, agricultural improvement, habitat fragmentation and changes in agricultural practices continue to impact on status and a decline in range of 23.5% was recorded over a 10-year period. Solutions must be applied at the landscape scale to(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in SOD1 cause 13% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In the SOD1 Gly93Ala rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 333611 delivered to CSF decreased SOD1 mRNA and protein concentrations in spinal cord tissue and prolonged survival. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and(More)
AIMS The current Royal College of Pathologists guidelines for pancreatoduodenectomy specimen reporting recommend that microscopic evidence of tumour within 1 mm of a resection margin (RM) should be classified as R1. No clinical evidence exists to justify this classification. The aim of this study was to identify the proportion of pancreatoduodenectomy(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to investigate whether the preoperative platelet-lymphocyte (P/L) ratio represents a significant prognostic index in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. METHODS A total of 110 patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma over a 10-year period were identified from a(More)
BACKGROUND Device selection has historically been supported by minimal comparative data. Since 1994, we have implanted 43 patients with the CardioWest Total Artificial Heart (CW), 23 with the Novacor Left Ventricular Assist System (N), and 26 with the Thoratec Ventricular Assist System (T). This experience provides a basis for our device selection criteria.(More)