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The conduction of calcium ions through glutamate-gated channels is important in the induction of long-term potentiation and may trigger other cellular changes. In retinal bipolar cells, which lack the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate-gated channel, calcium permeability through non-NMDA channels was examined. Changes in extracellular calcium(More)
The development of precise retinofugal projections is dependent on activity-mediated events, but as yet nothing is known about the ontogeny of excitable membrane properties in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In order to begin to understand how functional maturity is attained in these neurons, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained from acutely(More)
Displacement thresholds were determined for durations of movement between 10 msec and 2.5 sec, with and without the presence of a reference line. For all durations of movement, displacement thresholds were lower when a reference line was present. The magnitude of this effect was essentially constant across all durations of movement. These data suggest that(More)
Responses of visual cortex (area 17) neurons to moving oriented stimuli were recorded from anesthetized cats. The variance of response (SD2) to repeated identical stimuli was directly proportional to response magnitude (R), (SD2 =C2R). The values of C were not found to differ significantly between different types of cortical cells. The relationship predicts(More)
The activity of pairs of neurons in the visual cortex (area 17) of anaesthetized, paralysed cats was recorded using two independently manipulated micropipettes. The number of spikes in the evoked responses of pairs of single neurons were analyzed for response covariance. Responses of the majority of cell pairs (83%) did not covary. Covariance was restricted(More)
During ontogeny retinal ganglion cells manifest pronounced changes in excitable membrane properties. To further our understanding of the ionic conductances underlying such functional changes, the whole-cell voltage-clamp variation of the patch-clamp technique was used to record potassium currents in 220 ganglion cells dissociated from cat retinas ranging in(More)
A comatose 31-year-old male with presumed viral encephalitis and frequent partial motor seizures was paralyzed with pancuronium in an attempt to reduce recurrent elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP) associated with each seizure. ICP was continuously monitored with a Richmond Bolt and 5 electrographic seizures originating in the left frontal area were(More)