Richard Schmuck

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The nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides, which include imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin, are widely used to control a range of important agricultural pests both by foliar applications and also as seed dressings and by soil application. Since they exhibit systemic properties, exposure of bees may occur as a result of residues present in(More)
This paper is a guidance document for side-effect testing with plant protection products on non-target arthropods under semi-field and field conditions. The principles, methods, endpoints and interpretation of non-target arthropod semi-field and field trials which should be conducted for registration of plant protection products in the European Union are(More)
A multi-generation mass breeding colony of the cabbage moth, Plutella xylostella, was found to be infected with a microsporidium, Vairimorpha sp., which is passed transovarially between generations. The microsporidian infection had little impact on the fitness of this lepidopteran pest. However, when Trichogramma chilonis parasitized such infected host(More)
The existing standardised test systems for assessing the toxicity of crop protection products to the non-target arthropods Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Aphidius rhopalosiphi (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) are limit tests designed to compare a single-use rate of the product with a water control. The suitability of these test systems for generating(More)
The EU Plant Protection Product Directive 91/414/EEC recommends the EPPO/CoE Arthropod Natural Enemies Risk Assessment Scheme for guidance on how to conduct risk assessments for terrestrial non-target arthropods. This scheme is currently in the process of being revised by EPPO/ CoE. A major change will be the recommendation for the generation and use of(More)