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The biological effects of inhaled aerosols are often related to their site(s) of deposition within the respiratory tract. However, deposition patterns may differ between humans and those experimental animals commonly used in inhalation toxicology studies, making cross-species risk extrapolations difficult. This paper reviews the factors that control(More)
Epidemiological studies have provided evidence for an association between exposure to ambient particulate matter and increased mortality and morbidity. However, the exact physicochemical nature of the responsible components is not as yet clear. One major constituent of the ambient aerosol is secondary inorganic particles, which are produced within the(More)
The aim of this article is to review progress toward integration of toxicological and epidemiological research results concerning the role of specific physicochemical properties, and associated sources, in the adverse impact of ambient particulate matter (PM) on public health. Contemporary knowledge about atmospheric aerosols indicates their complex and(More)
Ambient air particulate matter (PM) originates as either primary particles emitted directly into the atmosphere from a specific source or as secondary particles produced from atmospheric chemical reactions between precursor gases or between these gases and primary particles. PM can derive from both natural and anthropogenic sources, resulting in a complex(More)
The evaluation of respiratory tract toxicity from airborne materials frequently involves exposure of animals via inhalation. This provides a natural route of entry into the host and, as such, is the preferred method for the introduction of toxicants into the lungs. However, for various reasons, this technique cannot always be used, and the direct(More)
In addition to developing nations relying almost exclusively upon biomass fuels, such as wood for cooking and home heating, North Americans, particularly in Canada and the northwestern and northeastern sections of the United States, have increasingly turned to woodburning as an alternate method for domestic heating because of increasing energy costs. As a(More)
Mouse WEHI-3 cells were exposed overnight to vanadium [V; ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) or vanadium pentoxide (V2O5)] to determine whether documented V-induced immunomodulation might arise from altered macrophage (M phi) interactions with interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) or altered IFN gamma-inducible responses. Binding studies performed at 22 degrees C(More)
The development of air pollution standards ideally involves the integration of data from the disciplines of epidemiology, controlled clinical studies, and animal toxicology. Epidemiological studies show statistical associations between health outcomes and exposure; they cannot establish a definite cause-effect relationship. The utility of toxicological(More)
Male Fisher 344 rats were exposed to 2 mg vanadium(V)/m3 (as ammonium metavanadate NH4VO3, 0.32 micron MMD) atmospheres for 8 hr/day for 4 days in a nose-only exposure system. In exposed rats, lung V burdens increased in a time-dependent fashion. Analysis of lung cells and lavage fluid 24 hr after the final exposure suggested that tissue damage and a strong(More)