Richard Schlesinger

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The evaluation of respiratory tract toxicity from airborne materials frequently involves exposure of animals via inhalation. This provides a natural route of entry into the host and, as such, is the preferred method for the introduction of toxicants into the lungs. However, for various reasons, this technique cannot always be used, and the direct(More)
The biological effects of inhaled aerosols are often related to their site(s) of deposition within the respiratory tract. However, deposition patterns may differ between humans and those experimental animals commonly used in inhalation toxicology studies, making cross-species risk extrapolations difficult. This paper reviews the factors that control(More)
The aim of this article is to review progress toward integration of toxicological and epidemiological research results concerning the role of specific physicochemical properties, and associated sources, in the adverse impact of ambient particulate matter (PM) on public health. Contemporary knowledge about atmospheric aerosols indicates their complex and(More)
Epidemiological studies have provided evidence for an association between exposure to ambient particulate matter and increased mortality and morbidity. However, the exact physicochemical nature of the responsible components is not as yet clear. One major constituent of the ambient aerosol is secondary inorganic particles, which are produced within the(More)
In 1998 Congress mandated expanded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) health effects research on ambient air particulate matter (PM) and a National Research Council (NRC) committee to provide research oversight. The U.S. EPA currently supports intramural and extramural PM research, including five academically based PM centers. The PM centers in(More)
Mouse WEHI-3 cells were exposed overnight to vanadium [V; ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) or vanadium pentoxide (V2O5)] to determine whether documented V-induced immunomodulation might arise from altered macrophage (M phi) interactions with interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) or altered IFN gamma-inducible responses. Binding studies performed at 22 degrees C(More)
Occupational exposure to freshly formed zinc oxide (ZnO) particles (less than 1.0 micron aerodynamic diameter) produces a well-characterized response known as metal fume fever. An 8-hr threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 mg/m3 has been established to prevent adverse health effects because of exposure to ZnO fumes. Because animal toxicity studies have(More)
Soluble and insoluble hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) agents are concomitantly released with ozone (O3) during welding. Although pulmonary/immunologic implications from exposure to each agent individually have been investigated, the effects from simultaneous exposure, as occurs under actual working conditions, are unclear. To investigate immunomodulatory effects(More)
In addition to developing nations relying almost exclusively upon biomass fuels, such as wood for cooking and home heating, North Americans, particularly in Canada and the northwestern and northeastern sections of the United States, have increasingly turned to woodburning as an alternate method for domestic heating because of increasing energy costs. As a(More)