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Mre11 forms the core of the multifunctional Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex that detects DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), activates the ATM checkpoint kinase, and initiates homologous recombination (HR) repair of DSBs. To define the roles of Mre11 in both DNA bridging and nucleolytic processing during initiation of DSB repair, we combined small-angle X-ray(More)
The Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (Nbs1) subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex protects genome integrity by coordinating double-strand break (DSB) repair and checkpoint signaling through undefined interactions with ATM, MDC1, and Sae2/Ctp1/CtIP. Here, fission yeast and human Nbs1 structures defined by X-ray crystallography and small angle X-ray(More)
The Rad50 ABC-ATPase complex with Mre11 nuclease is essential for dsDNA break repair, telomere maintenance and ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase checkpoint signaling. How Rad50 affects Mre11 functions and how ABC-ATPases communicate nucleotide binding and ligand states across long distances and among protein partners are questions that have remained(More)
Faithful maintenance and propagation of eukaryotic genomes is ensured by three-step DNA ligation reactions used by ATP-dependent DNA ligases. Paradoxically, when DNA ligases encounter nicked DNA structures with abnormal DNA termini, DNA ligase catalytic activity can generate and/or exacerbate DNA damage through abortive ligation that produces chemically(More)
Cdc6 has a critical regulatory role in the initiation of DNA replication in yeasts, but its function in mammalian cells has not been characterized. We show here that Cdc6 is expressed selectively in proliferating but not quiescent mammalian cells, both in culture and within tissues of intact animals. During the transition from a growth-arrested to a(More)
Initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotes is dependent on the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), but specific phosphoprotein substrates pertinent to this requirement have not been identified. A novel regulatory subunit of PP2A, termed PR48, was identified by a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human placental cDNA library, using human Cdc6, an(More)
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a post-translational protein modification implicated in the regulation of a range of cellular processes. A family of proteins that catalyse ADP-ribosylation reactions are the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerases (PARPs). PARPs covalently attach an ADP-ribose nucleotide to target proteins and some PARP family members(More)
Most cancer-associated BRCA1 mutations identified to date result in the premature translational termination of the protein, highlighting a crucial role for the C-terminal, BRCT repeat region in mediating BRCA1 tumor suppressor function. However, the molecular and genetic effects of missense mutations that map to the BRCT region remain largely unknown. Using(More)
Genetic screening of the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 has uncovered a large number of variants of uncertain clinical significance. Here, we use biochemical and cell-based transcriptional assays to assess the structural and functional defects associated with a large set of 117 distinct BRCA1 missense variants within the essential BRCT(More)