Richard S. Simons

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The function of the lateral hypaxial muscles during locomotion in tetrapods is controversial. Currently, there are two hypotheses of lateral hypaxial muscle function. The first, supported by electromyographic (EMG) data from a lizard (Iguana iguana) and a salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus), suggests that hypaxial muscles function to bend the body during(More)
Despite the acknowledged importance of the locomotory and respiratory functions associated with hypaxial musculature in salamanders, variation in gross morphology of this musculature has not been documented or evaluated within a phylogenetic or ecological context. In this study, we characterize and quantify the morphological variation of lateral hypaxial(More)
The relative motion of the visceral mass may be important to ventilation during running. A visceral piston hypothesis predicts that, during galloping, cranial motion of the liver during expiration and caudal motion of the liver during inspiration may characterize efficient quadrupedal mammalian locomotion. Although a theoretical model based on vibration(More)
Gross lung morphology is examined in representative species from four genera within the order Lagomorpha (Lepus californicus, Sylvilagus nuttalli, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Ochotona princeps), and compared with a representative rodent out-group (Spermophilus richardonsii). Examination of pulmonary morphology reveals several correlations between the thoracic(More)
The mechanics of lung ventilation in frogs and aquatic salamanders has been well characterized, whereas lung ventilation in terrestrial-phase (post-metamorphic) salamanders has received little attention. We used electromyography (EMG), X-ray videography, standard videography and buccal and body cavity pressure measurements to characterize the ventilation(More)
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