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The function of the lateral hypaxial muscles during locomotion in tetrapods is controversial. Currently, there are two hypotheses of lateral hypaxial muscle function. The first, supported by electromyographic (EMG) data from a lizard (Iguana iguana) and a salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus), suggests that hypaxial muscles function to bend the body during(More)
Despite the acknowledged importance of the locomotory and respiratory functions associated with hypaxial musculature in salamanders, variation in gross morphology of this musculature has not been documented or evaluated within a phylogenetic or ecological context. In this study, we characterize and quantify the morphological variation of lateral hypaxial(More)
A simple test rig was developed to assess the force applied during the application of cricoid pressure. Anaesthetists and paramedical personnel familiar with Sellick's manoeuvre were tested yielding results which indicate an unacceptably wide variation in performance in each group. The mean force was 46.4 N but 47% failed to reach a force of 44 N. In(More)
Silver(I)-2,6-bis(ethanolimidazolemethyl)pyridine hydroxide (4a) and silver(I)-2,6-bis(propanolimidazolemethyl)pyridine hydroxide (4b) are water-soluble silver(I)-carbene complexes that were synthesized in high yield by reacting silver(I) oxide with N-substituted pincer ligands 3 (a = 2,6-bis(ethanolimidazoliummethyl)pyridine diiodide, b =(More)
Preregistration house officers need to be able to manage the first 5-10 minutes of a cardiac arrest. A course has been designed based on the recommendations of the Resuscitation Council UK 1984 and the format of the American Heart Association advanced cardiac life support course. Fifty-nine newly qualified doctors from the same medical school class were(More)
The mechanics of lung ventilation in frogs and aquatic salamanders has been well characterized, whereas lung ventilation in terrestrial-phase (post-metamorphic) salamanders has received little attention. We used electromyography (EMG), X-ray videography, standard videography and buccal and body cavity pressure measurements to characterize the ventilation(More)
The relative motion of the visceral mass may be important to ventilation during running. A visceral piston hypothesis predicts that, during galloping, cranial motion of the liver during expiration and caudal motion of the liver during inspiration may characterize efficient quadrupedal mammalian locomotion. Although a theoretical model based on vibration(More)