Richard S. Clifton-Hadley

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The early, preclinical stages of bovine TB can be detected in live animals by the use of tests of cellular immunity (the skin, gamma-interferon and lymphocyte transformation tests). Tests of humoral (antibody) immunity, Mycobacterium bovis PCR probes on early tissue cultures or live cattle specimens, and tests based on "electronic nose" technology have been(More)
Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in cattle and is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In contrast to many other pathogenic bacterial species, there is little evidence for the transfer and recombination of genes between cells. The clonality of this group of organisms indicates that the population structure is dominated by(More)
For 20 years, bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been spreading in Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland) and is now endemic in the southwest and parts of central England and in southwest Wales, and occurs sporadically elsewhere. Although its transmission pathways remain poorly understood, the disease's distribution was previously modelled statistically by(More)
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease that can have serious consequences for cattle farming and, potentially, for public health. In Britain, failure to control bovine TB has been linked to persistent infection of European badger (Meles meles) populations. However, culling of badgers in the vicinity of recent TB outbreaks in cattle has failed to(More)
Human and livestock diseases can be difficult to control where infection persists in wildlife populations. In Britain, European badgers (Meles meles) are implicated in transmitting Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), to cattle. Badger culling has therefore been a component of British TB control policy for many years.(More)
Human and livestock diseases can be difficult to control where infection persists in wildlife populations. For three decades, European badgers (Meles meles) have been culled by the British government in a series of attempts to limit the spread of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), to cattle. Despite these efforts, the(More)
In the United Kingdom, badgers are implicated in the transmission of Mycobacterium bovis to cattle, but little information is available on the potential role of other wild mammals. This paper presents the results of the largest systematic UK survey of M. bovis infection in other wild mammals. Mammal carcasses (4715) from throughout the South-West region of(More)
A case-control study of the factors associated with the risk of a bovine tuberculosis (TB) breakdown in cattle herds was undertaken within the randomized badger culling trial (RBCT). TB breakdowns occurring prior to the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in three RBCT triplets were eligible to be cases; controls were selected from the same RBCT area. Data(More)
Mycobacterium bovis infection has been confirmed in a wide range of mammals hosts throughout the world. The European badger (Meles meles) and the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) are implicated as significant sources of infection for domestic cattle in the UK and New Zealand respectively. The risk of transmission of infection between a wildlife(More)
This review examines the current state of knowledge of aspects of tuberculosis in the badger. The gross pathology and pathogenesis are elaborated as well as the immune mechanism, diagnosis of infection and excretion and viability of infected products. The epidemiology in badgers is considered, as is the significance of infection in this species for other(More)