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This article reports a design experiment conducted over three successive school years, with the goal of having young students assume increasing levels of collective responsibility for advancing their knowledge, as represented in their contributions to a communal knowledge space. The context is a Grade 4 classroom; designs for studying optics are(More)
Identifying the major sources of risk in disease transmission is key to designing effective controls. However, understanding of transmission dynamics across species boundaries is typically poor, making the design and evaluation of controls particularly challenging for zoonotic pathogens. One such global pathogen is Escherichia coli O157, which causes a(More)
BACKGROUND It has been suggested that Plethodontid salamanders are excellent candidates for indicating ecosystem health. However, detailed, long-term data sets of their populations are rare, limiting our understanding of the demographic processes underlying their population fluctuations. Here we present a demographic analysis based on a 1996-2008 data set(More)
Identifying when past exposure to an infectious disease will protect against newly emerging strains is central to understanding the spread and the severity of epidemics, but the prediction of viral cross-protection remains an important unsolved problem. For foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) research in particular, improved methods for predicting this(More)
We examined long-term surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (DT104) isolates from concurrently sampled and sympatric human and animal populations in Scotland. Using novel ecological and epidemiological approaches to examine diversity, and phenotypic and temporal relatedness of the resistance profiles, we(More)
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most diverse regions of the mammalian genome. Diversity in MHC genes is integral to their function in the immune system, and while pathogens play a key role in shaping this diversity, the contribution of other selective forces remains unclear. The controlled breeding of cattle offers an excellent(More)
Godot is a mobile robot platform that serves as a testbed for the interface between a sophisticated low-level robot navigation and a symbolic high-level spoken dialogue system. The interesting feature of this combined system is that information flows in two directions: (1) The navigation system supplies landmark information from the cognitive map used for(More)
A large space of different neural models exists from simple mathematical abstractions to detailed biophysical representations with strongly differing levels of complexity and biological relevance. Previous comparisons between models have looked at biological realism or mathematical tractability rather than expressive power. This paper, however, investigates(More)
When a few individuals generate disproportionately many secondary cases, targeted interventions can theoretically lead to highly efficient control of the spread of infection. Practical exploitation of heterogeneous transmission requires the sources of variability to be quantified, yet it is unusual to have empirical data of sufficient resolution to(More)