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Many field experiments have tested for effects of competition in nature, but relatively few have used designs allowing simultaneous assessment of the influence of intra- and interspecific competition. Using a response surface design and a press manipulation of densities, we tested effects of competition within and between two species of coral reef fishes(More)
With x = population size, the nonautonomous equation x = xf(t, x) provides a very general description of population growth in which any of the many factors that influence the growth rate may vary through time. If there is some fixed length of time (usually long) such that during any interval of this length the population experiences environmental(More)
We examine the influence of canopy partitioning on the outcome of competition between two plant species that interact only by mutually shading each other. This analysis is based on a Kolmogorov-type canopy partitioning model for plant species with clonal growth form and fixed vertical leaf profiles (Vance and Nevai in J. Theor. Biol., 2007, to appear). We(More)
Salicornia virginica (common pickleweed) is the dominant vascular plant of many saline marshes of the US west coast, yet little is known about seasonal patterns or abiotic factors controlling it. In a southern California salt marsh, quarterly sampling revealed strong seasonal trends, with 2x greater S. virginica biomass in summer than in winter. Tissue(More)
Can a difference in the heights at which plants place their leaves, a pattern we call canopy partitioning, make it possible for two competing plant species to coexist? To find out, we examine a model of clonal plants living in a nonseasonal environment that relates the dynamical behavior and competitive abilities of plant populations to the structural and(More)
We give conditions under which two solutions x and y of the Kolmogorov equation ˙ x = xf (t, x) satisfy lim y(t)/x(t) = 1 as t → ∞. This conclusion is important for two reasons: it shows that the long-time behavior of the population is independent of the initial condition and it applies to ecological systems in which the coefficients are time dependent. Our(More)
A global method of nullcline endpoint analysis is employed to determine the outcome of competition for sunlight between two hypothetical plant species with clonal growth form that differ solely in the height at which they place their leaves above the ground. This difference in vertical leaf placement, or canopy partitioning, produces species differences in(More)
We tested whether the growth rates of small benthic fish (Gillichthys mirabilis) in three southern California estuaries corresponded with the local concentrations of contaminants. Fish originating from each estuary were transplanted to cages in each estuary in two reciprocal transplant experiments. The growth rates of caged fish, and the size-distribution(More)
The sea urchin, Centrostephanus coronatus, exhibits a relatively broad diet. Evidence presented in this paper suggests that evolution of dietary breadth is favored by two mechanisms. First, individual urchins occur in habitat types that support somewhat different foods. Urchins consume principally the most preferred food where it is common but are forced to(More)
Structural refuges within which prey can escape from predators can be an important limiting resource for the prey. In a manner that resembles the childhood game of musical chairs, many prey species rapidly retreat to shared, unguarded refuges whenever a predator threatens, and only when refuges are relatively abundant do all prey individuals actually(More)