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We have resolved B220+ IgM- B-lineage cells in mouse bone marrow into four fractions based on differential cell surface expression of determinants recognized by S7 (leukosialin, CD43), BP-1, and 30F1 (heat stable antigen). Functional differences among these fractions can be correlated with Ig gene rearrangement status. The largest fraction, lacking S7,(More)
RAG1 and RAG2 are essential for V(D)J recombination and lymphocyte development. These genes are thought to encode a transposase derived from a mobile genetic element that was inserted into the vertebrate genome 450 million years ago. The regulation of RAG1 and RAG2 was investigated in vivo with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenes containing a(More)
A small subpopulation of normal murine splenic B cells carrying all of the classic B cells markers (IgM, IgD, Ia, and ThB) also carries Ly-1, one of the major T cell surface molecules. This "Ly-1 B" subpopulation (identified and characterized by multiparameter FACS analyses) consists of relatively large, high IgM/low-IgD/low-Ly-1 lymphocytes that represent(More)
The early stages of murine B-cell differentiation are characterized by a series of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements which are required for the assembly of heavy(H) and light(L)-chain variable regions from germline gene segments. Rearrangement at the heavy-chain locus is initiated first and consists of the joining of a diversity (DH) gene segment to a(More)
BACKGROUND Counselling is frequently used in the management of common mental disorders (such as anxiety and depression) in primary care. However, there are concerns over the clinical effectiveness of counselling, both in comparison with usual general practitioner care, and with other treatments such as alternative psychological therapies and antidepressant(More)
BACKGROUND While several algorithms for the comparison of univariate distributions arising from flow cytometric analyses have been developed and studied for many years, algorithms for comparing multivariate distributions remain elusive. Such algorithms could be useful for comparing differences between samples based on several independent measurements,(More)
Developing B cells undergo dramatic changes in their responses to chemoattractant cytokines (chemokines) and in expression of chemokine receptors. Bone marrow pre-pro-B cells (AA4.1(+)/natural killer 1.1(-) Fraction A cells) and cells capable of generating pro-B colonies in the presence of interleukin 7 and flt3 ligand migrate to thymus-expressed chemokine(More)
The expression of B lineage associated genes during early B cell differentiation stages is not firmly established. Using cell surface markers and multiparameter flow cytometry, bone marrow (BM) cells can be resolved into six fractions, representing sequential stages of development; i.e., pre-Pro-B, early Pro-B, late Pro-B/large Pre-B, small Pre-B, immature(More)
BACKGROUND Unblinding effects may introduce bias into clinical trials. The use of active placebos to mimic side-effects of medication may therefore produce more rigorous evidence on the efficacy of antidepressants. METHOD Trials comparing antidepressants with active placebos were located. A standard measure of effect was calculated for each trial and(More)
Self-reactive B cells can be regulated by either deletion or inactivation. These manifestations of self-tolerance have been dramatically shown in transgenic mice in which the number of self-reactive cells has been artificially expanded. We have now extended these models to ask if B-cell tolerance as described for non-disease-associated antigens also(More)