Richard R. Forster

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[1] Past estimates of Greenland Ice Sheet accumulation rates have been multiyear climatologies based on ice/firn cores and coastal precipitation records. Existing annually resolved estimates have incompletely quantified uncertainty, owing primarily to incomplete spatial coverage. This study improves upon these shortcomings by calibrating annual (1958–2007)(More)
Thermally incised meltwater channels that flow each summer across melt-prone surfaces of the Greenland ice sheet have received little direct study. We use high-resolution WorldView-1/2 satellite mapping and in situ measurements to characterize supraglacial water storage, drainage pattern, and discharge across 6,812 km(2) of southwest Greenland in July 2012,(More)
Our poor understanding of tidewater glacier dynamics remains the primary source of uncertainty in sea level rise projections. On the ice sheets, mass lost from tidewater calving exceeds the amount lost from surface melting. In Alaska, the magnitude of calving mass loss remains unconstrained, yet immense calving losses have been observed. With 20% of the(More)
Large variations in both snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow slope stability are known to exist in the alpine snowpack, caused by wind, topographic and microclimatic effects. This variability makes extrapolation of point measurements of snowpack properties difficult and prone to error, but these types of measurements are used to estimate SWE and stability(More)
[1] Time series of active microwave backscatter data from the ERS Wind Scatterometers are used to demonstrate (1) the timing of melt onset can be observed over small ice caps, as well as the major ice sheets and multi-year sea ice; and (2) temporally integrated backscatter reduction (R) is strongly correlated with total annual positive-degree-days (PDD), as(More)
Pressing scientific questions concerning the Greenland ice sheet’s climatic sensitivity, hydrology, and contributions to current and future sea level rise require hydrological datasets to resolve. While direct observations of ice sheet meltwater losses can be obtained in terrestrial rivers draining the ice sheet and from lake levels, few such datasets(More)
In 1946 Lilienthal and his colleagues (1) described an ingenious technique for determining the 02 diffusing capacity of the lungs. Their method required the measurement of mixed venous and arterial oxygen pressure (Po2) while the subject was breathing air as well as breathing 12 to 14% 02 and assumed that the diffusing capacity, cardiac output, and venous(More)
T HE INTERCHANGE of heat between arteries and adjacent veins was described first by Claude Bernard (I), who made many measurements of arterial temperatures in animals and described moderate cooling of arterial blood in large vessels such as the femoral artery in the dog. The existence of this factor in the economy of heat exchange has long been known (2-4).(More)