Richard R. Facklam

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Since the division of the Streptococcus genus into enterococci, lactococci, and streptococci in 1984, many changes in the nomenclature and taxonomy of the Streptococcus genus have taken place. The application of genetic comparisons has improved the proper classification of the different species. The Lancefield system of serogrouping the streptococci by the(More)
The accurate diagnosis of pneumococcal disease has frequently been hampered not only by the difficulties in obtaining isolates of the organism from patient specimens but also by the misidentification of pneumococcus-like viridans group streptococci (P-LVS) as Streptococcus pneumoniae. This is especially critical when the specimen comes from the respiratory(More)
Rapid sequence analysis of specific PCR products was used to accurately deduce emm types corresponding to the majority of the known group A streptococcal (GAS) M serotypes. The study involved 95 M type reference GAS strains and a survey of 74 recent clinical isolates. A high percentage of agreement between M type serology and the previously published 5'(More)
BACKGROUND Beta-hemolytic streptococci of groups other than A and B (NABS) are increasingly recognized as causes of clinically significant disease, but precise information about this heterogeneous group is lacking. We report the incidence of NABS infection and describe the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics. METHODS Active, population-based(More)
CONTEXT A conjugate vaccine targeting 7 pneumococcal serotypes was licensed for young children in 2000. In contrast to the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine used in adults, the 7-valent conjugate vaccine affects pneumococcal carriage and transmission. Early after its introduction, incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease declined among older adults, a(More)
Conjugation of pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens to a protein carrier may improve protective immunity after vaccination of young children, an age group with high incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection and poor immune responses to polysaccharide vaccines. To identify serotypes most commonly associated with infection in young children,(More)
Severe invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) disease is believed to have reemerged during the past 10-20 years. We conducted active, laboratory, population-based surveillance in 5 US states (total population, 13,214,992). From 1 July 1995 through 31 December 1999, we identified 2002 episodes of invasive GAS (3.5 cases per 100,000 persons). Rates varied by(More)
BACKGROUND Five of seven serotypes in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, introduced for infants in the United States in 2000, are responsible for most penicillin-resistant infections. We examined the effect of this vaccine on invasive disease caused by resistant strains. METHODS We used laboratory-based data from Active Bacterial Core surveillance to(More)
Streptococci (206 cultures) previously identified as enterococci were retrieved from storage and reidentified by using tests designed to identify species of the genus Enterococcus. Of these 188, 91% were correctly identified as Enterococcus species. Of the remaining strains, nine (4%) were unidentified and six (3%) and 3 (1.5%) were identified as(More)
Several new genera and species of gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci that can cause infections in humans have been described. Although these bacteria were isolated in the clinical laboratory, they were considered nonpathogenic culture contaminants and were not thought to be the cause of any diseases. Isolation of pure cultures of these bacteria from(More)