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Maintenance of adult tissues is carried out by stem cells and is sustained throughout life in a highly ordered manner. Homeostasis within the stem-cell compartment is governed by positive- and negative-feedback regulation of instructive extrinsic and intrinsic signals. ErbB signalling is a prerequisite for maintenance of the intestinal epithelium following(More)
The Notch signaling pathway and the delta-like 4 ligand (DLL4) play key roles in embryonic vascular development. Many of the pathways involved in embryonic vascular development also play important roles in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we assessed the expression of DLL4 in primary renal cancer and investigated the biological function of DLL4 in primary(More)
Wnt genes are involved in mouse mammary cancer, but their role in human cancer is unknown. Human Wnt5a was cloned from a placental cDNA library and used to assess expression by ribonuclease protection and in situ hybridization in human breast cell lines and in normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues. Human Wnt5a shows over 99% homology at amino acid(More)
The adenoma:carcinoma sequence is well established. Understanding the molecular pathology of the adenoma is therefore important. There is great controversy within the field. The Vogelstein group champions the "top-down" theory (colorectal adenomas arise and grow across the mucosal surface and down into the crypts), whereas other studies, including our own,(More)
Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelium-specific angiogenic factor strongly implicated in pathological angiogenesis. In this study, the mRNA and protein expression of the four alternatively spliced VEGF isoforms (121, 165, 189 and 206 amino acids) were(More)
A series of colorectal carcinomas (n = 49) resected from patients with known clinical outcomes were analysed for E-cadherin expression using in situ hybridisation to measure mRNA. Patients surviving 5 years or longer (n = 31) exhibited significantly higher levels of E-cadherin mRNA than those surviving less than 5 years (n = 18, P = 0.003). These(More)
The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) mediates tumor cell growth, adhesion, and protection from apoptosis. High plasma IGF-I levels predispose to prostate cancer, but there is no consensus regarding IGF1R expression in primary and metastatic prostate cancer. Recent studies in a human cell line and a mouse model suggest that metastatic(More)
Pathologies caused by mutations in extracellular matrix proteins are generally considered to result from the synthesis of extracellular matrices that are defective. Mutations in type X collagen cause metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS), a disorder characterised by dwarfism and an expanded growth plate hypertrophic zone. We generated a knock-in(More)
Resistance to VEGF inhibitors is emerging as a major clinical problem. Notch signaling has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis. Therefore, to investigate mechanisms of resistance to angiogenesis inhibitors, we transduced human glioblastoma cells with retroviruses encoding Notch delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4), grew them as tumor xenografts and then treated the(More)