Learn More
BACKGROUND The age-specific relevance of blood pressure to cause-specific mortality is best assessed by collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from the separate prospective studies. METHODS Information was obtained on each of one million adults with no previous vascular disease recorded at baseline in 61 prospective observational(More)
BACKGROUND Results of previous randomised trials have shown that interventions that lower LDL cholesterol concentrations can significantly reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and other major vascular events in a wide range of individuals. But each separate trial has limited power to assess particular outcomes or particular categories of(More)
In 1951 the British Medical Association forwarded to all British doctors a questionnaire about their smoking habits, and 34440 men replied. With few exceptions, all men who replied in 1951 have been followed for 20 years. The certified causes of all 10 072 deaths and subsequent changes in smoking habits were recorded. The ratio of the death rate among(More)
BACKGROUND In early breast cancer, variations in local treatment that substantially affect the risk of locoregional recurrence could also affect long-term breast cancer mortality. To examine this relationship, collaborative meta-analyses were undertaken, based on individual patient data, of the relevant randomised trials that began by 1995. METHODS(More)
Evidence that the various common types of cancer are largely avoidable diseases is reviewed. Life-style and other environmental factors are divided into a dozen categories, and for each category the evidence relating those particular factors to cancer onset rates is summarized. Where possible, an estimate is made of the percentage of current U.S. cancer(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the hazards of cigarette smoking in men who formed their habits at different periods, and the extent of the reduction in risk when cigarette smoking is stopped at different ages. DESIGN Prospective study that has continued from 1951 to 2001. SETTING United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS 34 439 male British doctors. Information about their(More)
CONTEXT A large number of epidemiologic studies have reported on associations between various "inflammatory" factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). OBJECTIVE To assess the associations of blood levels of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin and leukocyte count with the subsequent risk of CHD. DATA SOURCES Meta-analyses of any long-term(More)
Part I of this report appeared in the previous issue (Br. J. Cancer (1976) 34,585), and discussed the design of randomized clinical trials. Part II now describes efficient methods of analysis of randomized clinical trials in which we wish to compare the duration of survival (or the time until some other untoward event first occurs) among different groups of(More)
BACKGROUND Radiotherapy for breast cancer often involves some incidental exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation. The effect of this exposure on the subsequent risk of ischemic heart disease is uncertain. METHODS We conducted a population-based case-control study of major coronary events (i.e., myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or(More)
BACKGROUND Alcohol consumption has both adverse and beneficial effects on survival. We examined the balance of these in a large prospective study of mortality among U.S. adults. METHODS Of 490,000 men and women (mean age, 56 years; range, 30 to 104) who reported their alcohol and tobacco use in 1982, 46,000 died during nine years of follow-up. We compared(More)