Richard Peterson

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Anticipated reward magnitude and probability comprise dual components of expected value (EV), a cornerstone of economic and psychological theory. However, the neural mechanisms that compute EV have not been characterized. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined neural activation as subjects anticipated monetary gains and(More)
Factors that regulate leukocyte entry and spread through CNS parenchyma during different types of CNS insults are incompletely understood. Reactive astrocytes have been implicated in restricting the spread of leukocytes from damaged into healthy parenchyma during the acute and local innate inflammatory events that follow CNS trauma, but the roles of(More)
Estrogens have neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties. The synthesis of estrogen occurs via the expression of aromatase. Previous studies have shown that injury to the vertebrate brain results in a rapid and dramatic up-regulation of aromatase expression in astrocytes around the lesion. As part of experiments examining injury-induced glial(More)
Oestrogens organize and activate circuits within the vertebrate central nervous system. Oestrogen synthesis occurs via the expression of aromatase, a P450 enzyme detected in microsomes and more recently in pre-synaptic boutons. Synaptic aromatase has only been described in brain regions that express aromatase in many subcellular compartments, so its(More)
The expression of aromatase (oestrogen synthase) within the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) is key in the provision of local oestrogens to neural circuits. Aromatase expression appears to be exclusively neuronal under normal conditions. However, some in vitro studies suggest the presence of astrocytic aromatase in songbirds and mammals. Recently,(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type IIIα (PI4KA) is a host factor essential for hepatitis C virus replication and hence is a target for drug development. PI4KA has also been linked to endoplasmic reticulum exit sites and generation of plasma membrane phosphoinositides. Here, we developed highly specific and potent inhibitors of PI4KA and conditional(More)
While the concept of “expected utility” informs many theories of decision making, little is known about whether and how the human brain might compute this quantity. This article reviews a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) experiments designed to localize brain regions that respond in anticipation of increasing amounts of monetary(More)
Experiments were conducted to (1) elucidate the biochemical pathways of E2 metabolism in the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) kidney and liver, and (2) test the hypothesis that specific xenobiotics and endogenous steroids inhibit E2 metabolism by these tissues. Kidney and liver tissue fragments from immature lake trout were incubated in vitro in the(More)
Estrogens influence neuronal differentiation, migration, and survival in intact brains. In injured brains, estrogens can also be neuroprotective. In Experiment 1, following a unilateral penetrating injury to the hippocampus (HP), adult female zebra finches were injected once with BrdU to label mitotic cells then sacrificed 2 h, 1 day, or 7 days(More)
The fatty acid composition of individual glycerolipids in brain and sciatic nerve of rats made diabetic with streptozotocin and sacrificed 8 weeks later was determined and compared to the alterations that occurred in liver and kidney glycerlipids. A substantial decrease in the proportion of arachidonic acid and increases in the relative content of linoleic(More)