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Fine roots acquire essential soil resources and mediate biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Estimates of carbon and nutrient allocation to build and maintain these structures remain uncertain because of the challenges of consistently measuring and interpreting fine-root systems. Traditionally, fine roots have been defined as all roots ≤ 2 mm(More)
The degree to which rising atmospheric CO(2) will be offset by carbon (C) sequestration in forests depends in part on the capacity of trees and soil microbes to make physiological adjustments that can alleviate resource limitation. Here, we show for the first time that mature trees exposed to CO(2) enrichment increase the release of soluble C from roots to(More)
Understanding the mechanisms by which invasive plants maintain dominance is essential to achieving long-term restoration goals. While many reports have suggested invasive plants alter resource availability, experimental tests of feedbacks between invasive plants and soil resources are lacking. We used field observations and experimental manipulations to(More)
The earth's future climate state is highly dependent upon changes in terrestrial C storage in response to rising concentrations of atmospheric CO₂. Here we show that consistently enhanced rates of net primary production (NPP) are sustained by a C-cascade through the root-microbe-soil system; increases in the flux of C belowground under elevated CO₂(More)
Understanding the context dependence of ecosystem responses to global changes requires the development of new conceptual frameworks. Here we propose a framework for considering how tree species and their mycorrhizal associates differentially couple carbon (C) and nutrient cycles in temperate forests. Given that tree species predominantly associate with a(More)
1. Soluble root exudates are notoriously difficult to collect in non-hydroponic systems because they are released in a narrow zone around roots and are rapidly assimilated by rhizosphere microbes. This has substantially limited our understanding of their rates of release and chemical composition in situ , and by extension, their ecological significance. 2.(More)
A common finding in multiple CO(2) enrichment experiments in forests is the lack of soil carbon (C) accumulation owing to microbial priming of 'old' soil organic matter (SOM). However, soil C losses may also result from the accelerated turnover of 'young' microbial tissues that are rich in nitrogen (N) relative to bulk SOM. We measured root-induced changes(More)
The rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) is a mechanism by which plants interact with soil functions. The large impact of the RPE on soil organic matter decomposition rates (from 50% reduction to 380% increase) warrants similar attention to that being paid to climatic controls on ecosystem functions. Furthermore, global increases in atmospheric CO2(More)
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