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The repair of DNA requires the removal of abasic sites, which are constantly generated in vivo both spontaneously and by enzymatic removal of uracil, and of bases damaged by active oxygen species, alkylating agents and ionizing radiation. The major apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) DNA-repair endonuclease in Escherichia coli is the multifunctional enzyme(More)
The crystal structure of the DNA repair enzyme endonuclease III, which recognizes and cleaves DNA at damaged bases, has been solved to 2.0 angstrom resolution with an R factor of 0.185. This iron-sulfur [4Fe-4S] enzyme is elongated and bilobal with a deep cleft separating two similarly sized domains: a novel, sequence-continuous, six-helix domain (residues(More)
Endonuclease IV is the archetype for a conserved apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease family that primes DNA repair synthesis by cleaving the DNA backbone 5' of AP sites. The crystal structures of Endonuclease IV and its AP-DNA complex at 1.02 and 1.55 A resolution reveal how an alpha8beta8 TIM barrel fold can bind dsDNA. Enzyme loops intercalate side(More)
DNA is constantly exposed to endogenous andexogenous alkylating agents that can modify its bases,resulting in mutagenesis in the absence of DNA repair [1,2]. Alkylation damage is removed by the action of DNA glycosylases, which initiate the base excision repair pathway and protect the sequence information of the genome [3-5]. We have identified a new class(More)
E. coli RecA protein and topoisomerase I, acting on superhelical DNA and circular single strands in the presence of ATP and Mg2+, topologically link single-stranded molecules to one another, and single-stranded molecules to duplex DNA. When superhelical DNA is relaxed by prior incubation with topoisomerase, it is a poor substrate for catenation. Extensive(More)
Exposure of Escherichia coli strains deficient in molybdopterin biosynthesis (moa) to the purine base N-6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP) is mutagenic and toxic. We show that moa mutants exposed to HAP also exhibit elevated mutagenesis, a hyperrecombination phenotype, and increased SOS induction. The E. coli rdgB gene encodes a protein homologous to a(More)
The recA protein, which is essential for genetic recombination in E. coli, promotes the homologous pairing of double-stranded DNA and linear single-stranded DNA, thereby forming a three-stranded joint molecule called a D loop. Single-stranded DNA stimulates recA protein to unwind double-stranded DNA. By a presumably related mechanism, recA protein promoted(More)
Deamination of nucleobases in DNA and RNA results in the formation of xanthine (X), hypoxanthine (I), oxanine, and uracil, all of which are miscoding and mutagenic in DNA and can interfere with RNA editing and function. Among many forms of nucleic acid damage, deamination arises from several unrelated mechanisms, including hydrolysis, nitrosative chemistry,(More)
Recent results show that the 8-oxoguanine DNA repair system is functionally conserved in bacteria and mammals. The bacterial system protects the genome from the mutagenic effects of oxidative stress; the role of the mammalian system is expected to be similar and defects in it may increase susceptibility to cancer.