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BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be caused by a hypofunction of glutamatergic neurons. Findings of reduced concentrations of glutamate in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia and the ability of glutamate-receptor antagonists to cause psychotic symptoms lend support to this hypothesis. N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), a(More)
Malaria is among the oldest of diseases. In one form or another, it has infected and affected our ancestors since long before the origin of the human line. During our recent evolution, its influence has probably been greater than that of any other infectious agent. Here we attempt to trace the forms and impacts of malaria from a distant past through(More)
With the introduction of continuous culture of Plasmodium falciparum it has become possible to study the factors involved in gametocyte production in vitro and thus eliminate the uncontrollable in vivo variables of the host. The authors have developed a method for measuring quantitatively the rate of production of gametocytes at any time in such cultures.(More)
We estimate that the global burden of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax is approximately 70-80 million cases annually. Probably approximately 10-20% of the world's cases of P. vivax infection occur in Africa, south of the Sahara. In eastern and southern Africa, P. vivax represents around 10% of malaria cases but < 1% of cases in western and central Africa.(More)
Malaria parasites are haploid for most of their life cycle, with zygote formation and meiosis occurring during the mosquito phase of development. The parasites can be analyzed genetically by transmitting mixtures of cloned parasites through mosquitoes to permit cross-fertilization of gametes to occur. A cross was made between two clones of Plasmodium(More)
BACKGROUND Chyle leaks are a rare complication following abdominal surgery. The aim of this study is to describe the management of chyle leaks following surgery for pancreatico-duodenal malignancy. METHODS Data were collated from a consecutive series of 105 patients who had undergone a pancreatico-duodenectomy for malignancy. From this cohort, patients(More)
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has been shown to produce exercise limitation and breathlessness. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors which may be responsible for limiting aerobic capacity in patients with AS. Twenty patients with no other cardio-respiratory disease performed integrative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). The results were(More)
Transaction cost economics (TCE), as developed and operationalized by Oliver Williamson, is one of the most prominent and influential developments in the social sciences. In recent years, on the basis of many empirical studies, it has been claimed that the evidence has corroborated TCE. If so, this would have major implications for the debate between TCE(More)
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors cause cough in some patients, but the mechanism of this effect is not known. Six patients in whom these inhibitors had caused cough and a further two patients in whom they were suspected to have caused worsening of bronchial asthma were studied. Nine patients in whom angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors had not(More)