Richard P Carter

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We estimate that the global burden of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax is approximately 70-80 million cases annually. Probably approximately 10-20% of the world's cases of P. vivax infection occur in Africa, south of the Sahara. In eastern and southern Africa, P. vivax represents around 10% of malaria cases but < 1% of cases in western and central Africa.(More)
Malaria transmission is strongly associated with location. This association has two main features. First, the disease is focused around specific mosquito breeding sites and can normally be transmitted only within certain distances from them: in Africa these are typically between a few hundred metres and a kilometre and rarely exceed 2-3 kilometres. Second,(More)
With the introduction of continuous culture of Plasmodium falciparum it has become possible to study the factors involved in gametocyte production in vitro and thus eliminate the uncontrollable in vivo variables of the host. The authors have developed a method for measuring quantitatively the rate of production of gametocytes at any time in such cultures.(More)
Malaria is among the oldest of diseases. In one form or another, it has infected and affected our ancestors since long before the origin of the human line. During our recent evolution, its influence has probably been greater than that of any other infectious agent. Here we attempt to trace the forms and impacts of malaria from a distant past through(More)
Malaria parasites are haploid for most of their life cycle, with zygote formation and meiosis occurring during the mosquito phase of development. The parasites can be analyzed genetically by transmitting mixtures of cloned parasites through mosquitoes to permit cross-fertilization of gametes to occur. A cross was made between two clones of Plasmodium(More)
Blood-stage malaria parasites in the vertebrate host can develop either into the asexual, multiplying forms, called schizonts, or into gametocytes, the sexual stages of the parasite. In the present work we studied the differentiation into asexual parasites or gametocytes of the progeny of single, isolated schizonts of the clone 3D7A of Plasmodium(More)
Plasmodium vivax is not thought to be transmitted in western and central Africa, because of the very high prevalence of the red blood cell Duffy-negative phenotype in local populations, a condition which is thought to confer complete resistance against blood infection with P. vivax. There are, however, persistent reports of travelers returning from this(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be caused by a hypofunction of glutamatergic neurons. Findings of reduced concentrations of glutamate in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia and the ability of glutamate-receptor antagonists to cause psychotic symptoms lend support to this hypothesis. N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), a(More)
Species of Plasmodium that naturally infect wild rodents but can also be maintained in laboratory mice have long been used as model systems in which to study the biology of malaria parasites. Several of these rodent parasites are now providing useful genomic comparisons to those species that cause malaria in humans. Here we examined the phylogenetic(More)