Richard Outerbridge

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An autologous graft from the lateral facet of the patella was used to repair a large osteochondral defect of the weight-bearing surface of the femoral condyle in ten patients who were then followed for an average of six and one-half years (range, four to nine years). Function was improved and symptoms were alleviated in all of the patients. Four patients(More)
Daily activity subjects the human patella to forces often several times the individual's body weight. Healthy cartilage can adjust to these forces if they are not too excessive, concentrated, or repetitive. Such abnormal stresses most frequently occur with the disturbance of normal patellar mechanical function. Chondromalacia patellae is the result common(More)
Osteochondritis dissecans of the posterior femoral condyle is an uncommon condition. In many respects--the large size of the joint, involvement of the weight-bearing surface, natural history, method of treatment, and the population affected--it differs from the more usual condition found in the intercondylar region. In 14 cases (16 involved knees),(More)
Chondromalacia of the patellae has been described as “ a degenerative process of the articular cartilage of the patella of traumatic origin, characterised by fibrillation. fissuring and erosion “ (Smillie 1962). Budinger (1906) is credited with the first description of this lesion. De Palma, in 1954, typified the current widespread opinion of the etiology(More)
Although perosseous venography of the hip is simple, variations in the circulation of the femoral head and difficulties in prediction of viability account for its limited acceptance. The venogram accurately demonstrates viability in 77% of 50 routinely fixed subcapital fractures. Factors causing variations in the circulation of the fractured head are:(More)
Sixteen patients (13 males and three females; average age, 27 years) with large symptomatic osteochondral defects of the femoral condyle were treated with an osteochondral autograft taken from the ipsilateral lateral patellar facet. Two patients had bilateral procedures for a total of 18 knees. These patients were followed up prospectively with an average(More)
DES is used almost universally by financial institutions (Fls) around the world. For the foreseeable future there are no alternatives to its continued use. Within ten years unmodified single-key DES will be breakable for a cost of about $3,500 per solution in under one day. Many financial systems which currently rely on single-key DES are therefore becoming(More)