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To study the pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria, we conducted autopsies in 31 children with this clinical diagnosis. We found that 23% of the children had actually died from other causes. The remaining patients had parasites sequestered in cerebral capillaries, and 75% of those had additional intra- and perivascular pathology. Retinopathy was the only(More)
BACKGROUND Clinically abnormal retinal vessels unique to cerebral malaria have previously been shown to be associated with a poor outcome in African children. There have been no studies of the histopathological correlates of these vessels. DESIGN This is a descriptive study of the clinical-histopathological correlates of the retinal vessels of 11 children(More)
We examined the brains of 50 Malawian children who satisfied the clinical definition of cerebral malaria (CM) during life; 37 children had sequestration of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) and no other cause of death, and 13 had a nonmalarial cause of death with no cerebral sequestration. For comparison, 18 patients with coma and no parasitemia were(More)
A common clinical presentation of Plasmodium falciparum is parasitemia, complicated by an encephalopathy for which other explanations cannot be found, termed cerebral malaria-an important cause of death in young children in endemic areas. Our objective was to study hepatic histopathology in Malawian children with fatal encephalopathy, with and without P(More)
BACKGROUND The inflammatory nature of falciparum malaria has been acknowledged since increased circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) were first measured, but precisely where the mediators downstream from this prototype inflammatory mediator are generated has not been investigated. Here we report on the cellular distribution, by(More)
Children living in sub-Saharan Africa bear the brunt of the mortality from falciparum malaria, yet there is a dearth of relevant post-mortem data. Clinical studies from centers in Africa suggest that the pathophysiology of severe malaria is different in children and adults. Three overlapping clinical syndromes, metabolic acidosis manifesting as hyperpnea,(More)
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major contributor to malaria deaths, but its pathophysiology is not well understood. While sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes is thought to be critical, the roles of inflammation and coagulation are controversial. In a large series of Malawian children hospitalized with CM, HIV coinfection was more prevalent than in(More)
Reye's syndrome virtually disappeared from much of the world after the use of salicylate in febrile children was successfully discouraged. This severe sepsis-like disease was thought to be caused by a hypersensitivity to salicylates in children with mild viral infections, although no mechanism consistent with this proposal was ever established. Salicylate(More)
BACKGROUND Plasmodium falciparum malaria infects 300-500 million people every year, causing 1-2 million deaths annually. Evidence of a coagulation disorder, activation of endothelial cells (EC) and increase in inflammatory cytokines are often present in malaria. OBJECTIVES We have asked whether interaction of parasitized red blood cells (pRBC) with EC(More)
Pediatric cerebral malaria carries a high mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. We present our systematic analysis of the descriptive and quantitative histopathology of all organs sampled from a series of 103 autopsies performed between 1996 and 2010 in Blantyre, Malawi on pediatric cerebral malaria patients and control patients (without coma, or without(More)