Richard O Hynes

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In their roles as major adhesion receptors, integrins signal across the plasma membrane in both directions. Recent structural and cell biological data suggest models for how integrins transmit signals between their extracellular ligand binding adhesion sites and their cytoplasmic domains, which link to the cytoskeleton and to signal transduction pathways.(More)
Many aspects of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle have not been reproduced in cell culture, which has slowed research progress on this important human pathogen. Here, we describe a full-length HCV genome that replicates and produces virus particles that are infectious in cell culture (HCVcc). Replication of HCVcc was robust, producing nearly 10(5)(More)
To examine the role of fibronectin in vivo, we have generated mice in which the fibronectin gene is inactivated. Heterozygotes have one half normal levels of plasma fibronectin, yet appear normal. When homozygous, the mutant allele causes early embryonic lethality, proving that fibronectin is required for embryogenesis. However, homozygous mutant embryos(More)
To investigate the functions of N-cadherin in vivo, we have mutated the gene encoding this adhesion protein in mice. Although N-cadherin is expressed at the time of gastrulation and neurulation, both neurulation and somitogenesis initiate apparently normally in homozygous mutant embryos. However, the resulting structures are often malformed. The somites of(More)
The extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM proteins are important in phenomena as diverse as developmental patterning, stem cell niches, cancer, and genetic diseases. The ECM has many effects beyond providing structural support. ECM proteins typically include multiple, independently folded domains whose sequences and arrangement are highly conserved. Some of(More)
The organization of the actin cytoskeleton can be regulated by soluble factors that trigger signal transduction events involving the Rho family of GTPases. Since adhesive interactions are also capable of organizing the actin-based cytoskeleton, we examined the role of Cdc42-, Rac-, and Rho-dependent signaling pathways in regulating the cytoskeleton during(More)
We have established, by means of a monoclonal antibody and a cDNA clone, that a desmosomal polypeptide of Mr 83,000 also occurs at the plaques of other types of adhering junctions, including the vinculin-actin-associated intercellular junctions, e.g., the zonula adhaerens of epithelial cells and the endothelial, lens, and Sertoli cell junctions. This is the(More)
Id proteins may control cell differentiation by interfering with DNA binding of transcription factors. Here we show that targeted disruption of the dominant negative helix-loop-helix proteins Id1 and Id3 in mice results in premature withdrawal of neuroblasts from the cell cycle and expression of neural-specific differentiation markers. The Id1-Id3 double(More)