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OBJECTIVE Prominent inflammation with formation of ectopic B-cell follicle-like structures in the meninges in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) (SPMS) is associated with extensive cortical pathology and an exacerbated disease course. Our objective was to evaluate the cellular substrates of the cortical damage to understand the role of meningeal(More)
The primary progressive form of multiple sclerosis is characterized by accrual of neurological dysfunction from disease onset without remission and it is still a matter of debate whether this disease course results from different pathogenetic mechanisms compared with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Inflammation in the leptomeninges has been(More)
Meningeal inflammation in the form of ectopic lymphoid-like structures has been suggested to play a prominent role in the development of cerebral cortical grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and distribution of B cell follicle-like structures in an extensive collection of cases with secondary(More)
Intrathecal antibody production is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis and humoral immunity is thought to play an important role in the inflammatory response and development of demyelinated lesions. The presence of lymphoid follicle-like structures in the cerebral meninges of some multiple sclerosis patients indicates that B-cell maturation can be sustained(More)
Drug development for multiple sclerosis (MS), as with any other neurological disease, faces numerous challenges, with many drugs failing at various stages of development. The disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) first introduced for MS are only moderately effective, but given the lack of competition, they have been widely accepted in clinical practice.(More)
In recent years adaptive seamless phase II/III designs (ASDs) allowing treatment or dose selection at an interim analysis have gained much attention because of their potential to save development costs and to shorten time-to-market of a new compound compared to conventional drug development programmes with separate trials for individual phases. In this(More)
BACKGROUND Sample size calculation is a key aspect in the planning of any trial. Planning a randomized placebo-controlled trial in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) requires knowledge of the annualized relapse rate (ARR) in the placebo group. OBJECTIVES This paper aims (i) to characterize the uncertainty in ARR by conducting a systematic(More)
Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802(More)
Recent studies have revealed extensive neocortical pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS). The hippocampus is a unique archaeocortical structure understudied in MS. It plays a central role in episodic and anterograde memory-the most frequently impaired cognitive modalities in MS. This histopathological study aimed to investigate inflammatory demyelination and(More)
We demonstrate a role for nonactivated rat microglia in the survival and maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Media conditioned by nonactivated microglia increase the number of surviving galactocerebroside(+) (GalC(+)) oligodendrocytes in vitro at 48 h by inhibiting the apoptosis of OPCs and stimulating their maturation to GalC+(More)