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The elastic properties of the human Achilles tendon are important for locomotion; however, in vitro tests suggest that repeated cyclic contractions lead to tendon fatigue - an increase in length in response to stress applied. In vivo experiments have not, however, demonstrated mechanical fatigue in the Achilles tendon, possibly due to the limitations of(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the sequence of events involved in long-term biological reconstruction of a tendon-bone interface following surgical reattachment. Patellar tendon re-attachment in the adult sheep was used to investigate and describe the biological components involved in healing and repair of a tendon enthesis. Light(More)
The calf-raise test is used by clinicians and researchers in sports medicine to assess properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit. The test generally involves repetitive concentric-eccentric muscle action of the plantar-flexors in unipedal stance and is quantified by the number of raises performed. Although the calf-raise test appears to have acceptable(More)
Mechanical loading of the Achilles tendon during isolated eccentric contractions could induce immediate and region-dependent changes in mechanical properties. Three-dimensional ultrasound was used to examine the immediate effect of isolated eccentric exercise on the mechanical properties of the distal (free tendon) and proximal (gastrocnemii) regions of the(More)
BACKGROUND Athletes commonly sustain injuries to the triceps surae muscle-tendon unit. The calf-raise test (CRT) is frequently employed in sports medicine for the detection and monitoring of such injuries. However, despite being widely-used, a recent systematic review found no universal consensus relating to the test's purpose, parameters, and standard(More)
BACKGROUND This study examines the effect of progressive increases in footwear minimalism on injury incidence and pain perception in recreational runners. METHODS One hundred and three runners with neutral or mild pronation were randomly assigned a neutral (Nike Pegasus 28), partial minimalist (Nike Free 3.0 V2) or full minimalist shoe (Vibram 5-Finger(More)
Freehand three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) was used to investigate longitudinal and biaxial transverse deformation and rotation of the free Achilles tendon in vivo during a voluntary submaximal isometric muscle contraction. Participants (n = 8) were scanned at rest and during a 70% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the plantarflexors.(More)
This study investigated the accuracy of phantom volume and length measurements and the reliability of in vivo Achilles tendon (AT) volume, length and cross-sectional area measurements obtained using freehand 3-D ultrasound. Participants (n = 13) were scanned on consecutive days under active and passive loading conditions. In vivo AT length was evaluated(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the effectiveness of eccentric exercise (EE) programmes in the treatment of common tendinopathies. DATA SOURCES Relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were sourced using the OVID website databases: MEDLINE (1966-Jan 2006), CINAHL (1982-Jan 2006), AMED (1985-Jan 2006), EMBASE (1988-Jan 2006), and all EBM reviews--Cochrane DSR,(More)
INTRODUCTION Understanding the mechanical and morphological adaptation of the Achilles tendon (AT) in response to acute exercise could have important implications for athletic performance, injury prevention, and rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and critical evaluation of the literature to determine the immediate(More)