Richard N. Mitchell

Learn More
BACKGROUND Dilated cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy arise from mutations in many genes. TTN, the gene encoding the sarcomere protein titin, has been insufficiently analyzed for cardiomyopathy mutations because of its enormous size. METHODS We analyzed TTN in 312 subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy, 231 subjects with hypertrophic(More)
The B cell antigen receptor (BCR) serves both to initiate signal transduction cascades and to target antigen for processing and presentation by MHC class II molecules. How these two BCR functions are coordinated is not known. Recently, sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich plasma membrane lipid microdomains, termed lipid rafts, have been identified and(More)
MHC class II molecules display antigenic peptides on cell surfaces for recognition by CD4(+) T cells. Proteolysis is required in this process both for degradation of invariant chain (Ii) from class II-Ii complexes to allow subsequent binding of peptides, and for generation of the antigenic peptides. The cysteine endoprotease, cathepsin S, mediates Ii(More)
Expansion and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) result in high morbidity and mortality rates. Like stenotic atherosclerotic lesions, AAA accumulate inflammatory cells, but usually exhibit much more extensive medial damage. Leukocyte recruitment and expression of pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines typically characterize early atherogenesis of any kind,(More)
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) cause death due to complications related to expansion and rupture. The underlying mechanisms that drive AAA development remain largely unknown. We recently described evidence for a shift toward T helper type 2 (Th2) cell responses in human AAAs compared with stenotic atheromas. To evaluate putative pathways in AAA(More)
CXCR3 chemokines exert potent biological effects on both immune and vascular cells. The dual targets suggest their important roles in cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) and rejection. Therefore, we investigated expression of IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), monokine induced by IFN (Mig), and their(More)
RATIONALE Two categories of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) with predominantly myogenic (mCSC) and vasculogenic (vCSC) properties have been characterized in the human heart. However, it is unknown whether functionally competent CSCs of both classes are present in the myocardium of patients affected by end-stage cardiac failure, and whether these cells can be(More)
Smooth muscle cells play an important role in human vascular diseases. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that circulating smooth muscle precursor cells contribute to intimal hyperplasia in animal models. We obtained large spindle cells expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), denoted here as "smooth muscle-like cells" (SMLC), from human(More)
Successful antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells is governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of antigen capture by cell-surface receptors, targeting to compartments of antigen processing, surface expression of MHC II-peptide complexes and presence of co-stimulatory signals. Ganglioside GM1 is an important component of membrane(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the development of effective immunosuppressive therapy, transplant graft arterial disease (GAD) remains the major limitation to long-term graft survival. The interplay between host inflammatory cells and donor vascular wall cells results in an intimal hyperplastic lesion, which leads to ischemia and graft failure. HMG-CoA reductase(More)