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BACKGROUND Dilated cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy arise from mutations in many genes. TTN, the gene encoding the sarcomere protein titin, has been insufficiently analyzed for cardiomyopathy mutations because of its enormous size. METHODS We analyzed TTN in 312 subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy, 231 subjects with hypertrophic(More)
The B cell antigen receptor (BCR) serves both to initiate signal transduction cascades and to target antigen for processing and presentation by MHC class II molecules. How these two BCR functions are coordinated is not known. Recently, sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich plasma membrane lipid microdomains, termed lipid rafts, have been identified and(More)
As therapeutic strategies to prevent acute rejection progressively improve, transplant vasculopathy (TV) constitutes the single most important limitation for long-term functioning of solid organ allografts. In TV, allograft arteries characteristically develop severe, diffuse intimal hyperplastic lesions that eventually compromise luminal flow and cause(More)
Smooth muscle cells play an important role in human vascular diseases. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that circulating smooth muscle precursor cells contribute to intimal hyperplasia in animal models. We obtained large spindle cells expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), denoted here as "smooth muscle-like cells" (SMLC), from human(More)
CXCR3 chemokines exert potent biological effects on both immune and vascular cells. The dual targets suggest their important roles in cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) and rejection. Therefore, we investigated expression of IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), monokine induced by IFN (Mig), and their(More)
MHC class II molecules display antigenic peptides on cell surfaces for recognition by CD4(+) T cells. Proteolysis is required in this process both for degradation of invariant chain (Ii) from class II-Ii complexes to allow subsequent binding of peptides, and for generation of the antigenic peptides. The cysteine endoprotease, cathepsin S, mediates Ii(More)
Because of the anatomy, function, and nonregenerative nature of the myocardium, inflammation in this tissue is not well tolerated. Nevertheless, various diseases of the heart are characterized by inflammatory responses involving the effector mechanisms of innate and adaptive (lymphocyte-dependent) immunity. The innate immune response to ischemia-reperfusion(More)
The application of TCR transgenic mice to transplantation immunology is hampered by the limited lines available. Recently, we reported CD4+ T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice specific for I-Abm12 expressed on B6.C.H-2bm12 mice. Here, we characterized rejection of skin and vascularized cardiac allografts in these mice, which we term ABM (for anti-bm12).(More)
Surgical aortic specimens are usually examined in Pathology Departments as a result of treatment of aneurysms or dissections. A number of diseases, genetic syndromes (Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, etc.), and vasculopathic aging processes involved in vascular injury can cause both distinct and nonspecific histopathologic changes with degeneration of(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin is proposed as a therapy for suppressing muscle wasting after burn trauma although the long-term effects of this therapy on wound healing are not yet known. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of systemically administered insulin therapy on burn wound healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS Young rats weighing 80-150 g were(More)