Richard N Cloud

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This study compared the 40-item Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy (AASE) scale with domains of confidence and temptation to a new 12-item version developed by the authors consisting of the same domains. There were 126 participants who completed the survey. Psychometric analysis demonstrated high reliability and validity consisting of high correlations(More)
An increasing body of research evidence supports the use of 12-step program affiliation as an effective adjunct and aftercare for formal treatment. Recently, three brief (9- or 10-item) measures of affiliation have been developed. However, the brief scales are difficult to interpret, and the question of exactly what is affiliation (or disaffiliation)(More)
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