Richard N Cloud

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An increasing body of research evidence supports the use of 12-step program affiliation as an effective adjunct and aftercare for formal treatment. Recently, three brief (9- or 10-item) measures of affiliation have been developed. However, the brief scales are difficult to interpret, and the question of exactly what is affiliation (or disaffiliation)(More)
This study compared the 40-item Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy (AASE) scale with domains of confidence and temptation to a new 12-item version developed by the authors consisting of the same domains. There were 126 participants who completed the survey. Psychometric analysis demonstrated high reliability and validity consisting of high correlations(More)
The etiology of the immunologic abnormalities in myasthenia gravis (MG) remains unknown. Evidence for persistent viral infection was sought by determining serum antibody titers to several enveloped RNA and DNA viruses. Compared to healthy controls matched for age, sex, geography and socioeconomic status, patients with MG were more likely to have elevated(More)
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