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Voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) is a whole-brain, unbiased technique for characterizing regional cerebral volume and tissue concentration differences in structural magnetic resonance images. We describe an optimized method of VBM to examine the effects of age on grey and white matter and CSF in 465 normal adults. Global grey matter volume decreased linearly(More)
We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine human brain asymmetry and the effects of sex and handedness on brain structure in 465 normal adults. We observed significant asymmetry of cerebral grey and white matter in the occipital, frontal, and temporal lobes (petalia), including Heschl's gyrus, planum temporale (PT) and the hippocampal formation. Males(More)
This article reviews functional neuroimaging studies of priming, a behavioural change associated with the repeated processing of a stimulus. Using the haemodynamic techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), priming-related effects have been observed in numerous regions of the human brain, with the(More)
The question of whether recognition memory judgments with and without recollection reflect dissociable patterns of brain activity is unresolved. We used event-related, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of 12 healthy volunteers to measure hemodynamic responses associated with both studying and recognizing words. Volunteers made one of three(More)
Three solutions to the problem of serial order can be identified: chaining, ordinal and positional theories. Error patterns in serial recall from short-term memory fail to support chaining theories, yet provide unequivocal evidence for positional theories. In a new model of short-term memory, the Start-End Model (SEM), the positions of items in a sequence(More)
In Friston et al. ((2002) Neuroimage 16: 465-483) we introduced empirical Bayes as a potentially useful way to estimate and make inferences about effects in hierarchical models. In this paper we present a series of models that exemplify the diversity of problems that can be addressed within this framework. In hierarchical linear observation models, both(More)
This article considers the efficiency of event-related fMRI designs in terms of the optimum temporal pattern of stimulus or trial presentations. The distinction between "stochastic" and "deterministic" is used to distinguish between designs that are specified in terms of the probability that an event will occur at a series of time points (stochastic) and(More)
Repetition priming has been characterized neurophysiologically as a decreased response following stimulus repetition. The present study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether this repetition-related response is sensitive to stimulus familiarity. A right fusiform region exhibited an attenuated response to the(More)
We conducted two event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to investigate the neural substrates of visual object recognition in humans. We used a repetition-priming method with visual stimuli recurring at unpredictable intervals, either with the same appearance or with changes in size, viewpoint or exemplar. Lateral occipital(More)
This paper describes an application of hierarchical or empirical Bayes to the distributed source reconstruction problem in electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG and MEG). The key contribution is the automatic selection of multiple cortical sources with compact spatial support that are specified in terms of empirical priors. This obviates the need to use(More)