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A user study was conducted to investigate how people deal with the flow of information in their workspaces. Subjects reported that, in an attempt to quickly and informally manage their information, they created piles of documents. Piles were seen as complementary to the folder filing system, which was used for more formal archiving. A new desktop interface(More)
Audio data is rarely used on desktop computers today, although audio is otherwise widely used for communication tasks. This paper describes early work aimed at creating computer tools that support the ways users may want to work with audio data. User needs for the system were determined by intervieweing people already working with audio data, using existing(More)
Turvy is a simulated prototype of an instructible agent. The user teaches it by demonstrating actions and pointing at or talking about relevant data. We formalized our assumptions about what could be implemented, then used the Wizard of Oz to flesh out a design and observe users' reactions as they taught several editing tasks. We found: a) all users invent(More)
Icons are used increasingly in interfaces because they are compact " universal " pictographic representations of computer functionality and processing. Animated icons can bring to life symbols representing complete applications or functions within an application, thereby clarifying their meaning, demonstrating their capabilities, and even explaining their(More)
The pile is a new element of the desktop user interface metaphor, designed to support the casual organization of documents. An interface design based on the pile concept suggested uses of content awareness for describing, organizing, and filing textual documents. We describe a prototype implementation of these capabilities, and give a detailed example of(More)
This study was concerned with the effectiveness of word processing as a written language intervention for primary-age deaf children. Subjects were 14 children in two primary school deaf-unit classes matched in terms of age, gender, and degree of hearing loss. A quasi-experimental design incorporating multiple-group baselines with pre- and post-tests enable(More)
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