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Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a leading cause of infection-related mortality in humans. All GAS serotypes express the Lancefield group A carbohydrate (GAC), comprising a polyrhamnose backbone with an immunodominant N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) side chain, which is the basis of rapid diagnostic tests. No biological function has been attributed to this(More)
Vaccination with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has significantly reduced the burden of pneumococcal disease and has had an important public health benefit. Because this vaccine targets only seven of the more than 92 pneumococcal serotypes, concerns have been raised that non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs) could increase in prevalence and reduce(More)
Although anticapsular antibodies confer serotype-specific immunity to pneumococci, children increase their ability to clear colonization before these antibodies appear, suggesting involvement of other mechanisms. We previously reported that intranasal immunization of mice with pneumococci confers CD4+ T cell-dependent, antibody- and serotype-independent(More)
There are 91 known capsular serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence of particular serotypes is relatively stable worldwide, but the host and bacterial factors that maintain these patterns are poorly understood. Given the possibility of serotype replacement following vaccination against seven clinically important(More)
Group B streptococci (GBS) vigorously activate inflammatory responses. We reported previously that a secreted GBS "factor" activates phagocytes via Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR6, but that GBS cell walls activate cells independently of these receptors. We hypothesized that the phagocytic immune functions in response to GBS, such as inflammation, uptake,(More)
BACKGROUND Antibody to capsular polysaccharide has been the basis of several vaccines that offer protection against invasive disease from Streptococcus pneumoniae. The success of such vaccines has led to the inference that natural protection against invasive pneumococcal disease is largely conferred by anticapsular antibody. If this is so, one would expect(More)
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the major cause of sepsis in newborn infants. In vitro, inactivated GBS stimulates macrophages to produce inflammatory proteins via the TLR adapter protein MyD88. Furthermore, inflammatory cytokine release in response to GBS greatly exceeds that following stimulation with pneumococci. In this study, we attempted to unravel(More)
Antigenic variation to evade host immunity has long been assumed to be a driving force of diversifying selection in pathogens. Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is central to the organism's transmission and therefore evolution, is limited by two arms of the immune system: antibody- and T cell- mediated immunity. In particular, the effector(More)
Regulatory T cells (Treg) diminish immune responses to microbial infection, which may contribute to preventing inflammation-related local tissue damage and autoimmunity but may also contribute to chronicity of infection. Nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus is common in young children and can persist for long periods but it is unknown whether the(More)
BACKGROUND Knowledge of geography is integral to the study of insect-borne infectious disease such as malaria. This study was designed to evaluate whether geographic parameters are associated with malarial infection in the East Sepik province of Papua New Guinea (PNG), a remote area where malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. METHODS A(More)