Richard Malley

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Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of invasive bacterial disease worldwide. Fragments of the cell wall and the cytolytic toxin pneumolysin have been shown to contribute substantially to inflammatory damage, although the interactions between pneumococcal components and host-cell structures have not been elucidated completely. Results of a(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebral edema is an uncommon but devastating complication of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. Risk factors for this complication have not been clearly defined. METHODS In this multicenter study, we identified 61 children who had been hospitalized for diabetic ketoacidosis within a 15-year period and in whom cerebral edema had developed. Two(More)
Although anticapsular antibodies confer serotype-specific immunity to pneumococci, children increase their ability to clear colonization before these antibodies appear, suggesting involvement of other mechanisms. We previously reported that intranasal immunization of mice with pneumococci confers CD4+ T cell-dependent, antibody- and serotype-independent(More)
Vaccination with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has significantly reduced the burden of pneumococcal disease and has had an important public health benefit. Because this vaccine targets only seven of the more than 92 pneumococcal serotypes, concerns have been raised that non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs) could increase in prevalence and reduce(More)
A whole-cell killed unencapsulated pneumococcal vaccine given by the intranasal route with cholera toxin as an adjuvant was tested in two animal models. This vaccination was highly effective in preventing nasopharyngeal colonization with an encapsulated serotype 6B strain in mice and also conferred protection against illness and death in rats inoculated(More)
CONTEXT Children with meningitis are routinely admitted to the hospital and administered broad-spectrum antibiotics pending culture results because distinguishing bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis is often difficult. OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a simple multivariable model to distinguish bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis in(More)
The human bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae dies spontaneously upon reaching stationary phase. The extent of S. pneumoniae death at stationary phase is unusual in bacteria and has been conventionally attributed to autolysis by the LytA amidase. In this study, we show that spontaneous pneumococcal death is due to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), not(More)
The recent discovery of a mobile genetic element encoding a pilus-like structure in Streptococcus pneumoniae and the demonstration of a role for the pilus in virulence in mice have led to the proposal of the use of the pilus as a candidate pneumococcal vaccine. We examined the frequency of occurrence of the pneumococcal pilus, as determined by the presence(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization and invasive disease peak around the third and first birthdays, respectively, and decline thereafter. While these declines are attributable in part to immunity acquired via natural exposure, maturation of innate immune responses may also be involved. A mucosally administered candidate whole-cell pneumococcal vaccine(More)
There are 91 known capsular serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence of particular serotypes is relatively stable worldwide, but the host and bacterial factors that maintain these patterns are poorly understood. Given the possibility of serotype replacement following vaccination against seven clinically important(More)