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Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of invasive bacterial disease worldwide. Fragments of the cell wall and the cytolytic toxin pneumolysin have been shown to contribute substantially to inflammatory damage, although the interactions between pneumococcal components and host-cell structures have not been elucidated completely. Results of a(More)
Vaccination with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has significantly reduced the burden of pneumococcal disease and has had an important public health benefit. Because this vaccine targets only seven of the more than 92 pneumococcal serotypes, concerns have been raised that non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs) could increase in prevalence and reduce(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebral edema is an uncommon but devastating complication of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. Risk factors for this complication have not been clearly defined. METHODS In this multicenter study, we identified 61 children who had been hospitalized for diabetic ketoacidosis within a 15-year period and in whom cerebral edema had developed. Two(More)
Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is caused by mutations in the WAS gene that encodes for a protein (WASp) involved in cytoskeleton organization in hematopoietic cells. Several distinctive abnormalities of T, B, and natural killer lymphocytes; dendritic cells; and phagocytes have been found in WASp-deficient patients and mice; however, the in vivo consequence(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important bacterial cause of sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and otitis media. Pneumococcal disease is generally preceded by mucosal colonization with the homologous strain; hence, resistance to colonization may be an important aspect of resistance to disease. In humans, complement deficiency is a risk factor for the development(More)
The human bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae dies spontaneously upon reaching stationary phase. The extent of S. pneumoniae death at stationary phase is unusual in bacteria and has been conventionally attributed to autolysis by the LytA amidase. In this study, we show that spontaneous pneumococcal death is due to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), not(More)
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a leading cause of infection-related mortality in humans. All GAS serotypes express the Lancefield group A carbohydrate (GAC), comprising a polyrhamnose backbone with an immunodominant N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) side chain, which is the basis of rapid diagnostic tests. No biological function has been attributed to this(More)
A whole-cell killed unencapsulated pneumococcal vaccine given by the intranasal route with cholera toxin as an adjuvant was tested in two animal models. This vaccination was highly effective in preventing nasopharyngeal colonization with an encapsulated serotype 6B strain in mice and also conferred protection against illness and death in rats inoculated(More)
We conducted a 10-year retrospective study of all children who had cerebrospinal fluid latex agglutination testing for bacterial antigens performed at 1 tertiary care urban children's hospital. Of the 176 patients with culture-negative meningitis who were pretreated with antibiotics before lumbar puncture, none had a positive latex agglutination study (0 of(More)
The objective of this study was to compare artificial neural network (ANN) and multivariable logistic regression analyses for prediction modeling of adverse outcome in pediatric meningococcal disease. We analyzed a previously constructed database of children younger than 20 years of age with meningococcal disease at four pediatric referral hospitals from(More)