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We propose the CARE properties as a simple way of characterising and assessing aspects of multimodal interaction: the Complementarity, Assignment, Redundancy, and Equivalence that may occur between the interaction techniques available in a multimodal user interface. We provide a formal definition of these properties and use the notion of compatibility to(More)
A Programmable User Model (PUM) is a psychologically constrained architecture which an interface designer is invited to program to simulate a user performing a range of tasks with a proposed interface. It provides a novel way of conveying psychological considerations to the designer, by involving the designer in the process of making predictions of(More)
Cognitive models are computer programs that simulate human performance of cognitive skills. They have been useful to HCI by predicting task times, by assisting users, and by acting as surrogate users. If cognitive models could interact with the same interfaces that users do, the models would be easier to develop and would be easier to apply as interface(More)
Two experiments were carried out to examine the effect of interruption position and interruption duration on post-completion error (PCE) occurrences in a game-like procedural task. Experiment 1 showed a significant main effect of interruption position on PCE rate; significantly more PCEs were obtained when the interruption occurred just before the PC step(More)
This paper describes a computational model based on rational analysis which is compared to experimental data and enables us to explain the number and order of assessments that participants make on the items on a web-page. The model provides both a good fit to the scan paths of the participants and an explanation for why a particular item is chosen. The(More)
We assert that the product of user interface design should be not only the interface itself but also a rationale for why the interface is the way it is. We describe a representation for design based around a semi-formal notation which allows us explicitly to represent alternative design options and reasons for choosing among them. We illustrate the approach(More)