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We propose the CARE properties as a simple way of characterising and assessing aspects of multimodal interaction: the Complementarity, Assignment, Redundancy, and Equivalence that may occur between the interaction techniques available in a multimodal user interface. We provide a formal definition of these properties and use the notion of compatibility to(More)
A Programmable User Model (PUM) is a psychologically constrained architecture which an interface designer is invited to program to simulate a user performing a range of tasks with a proposed interface. It provides a novel way of conveying psychological considerations to the designer, by involving the designer in the process of making predictions of(More)
  • Richard M Young, Richard L Lewis, Baddeley, Logie, Cowan, O Schneider +1 other
  • 1999
Five central features of the theory From the viewpoint of the Soar cognitive architecture, the term " working memory " (WM) refers to the psychological mechanisms that maintain information retrieved or created during the performance of a task. The following are the five key points made in the chapter concerning Soar's treatment of human WM: (1) Soar is not(More)
A postcompletion error (PCE) is a specific kind of cognitive slip that involves omitting a final task step after the main goal of the task is accomplished. It is notoriously difficult to provoke (and hence study) slips under experimental conditions. In this paper, the authors present an experimental task paradigm that has been shown to be effective for(More)
Cognitive models are computer programs that simulate human performance of cognitive skills. They have been useful to HCI by predicting task times, by assisting users, and by acting as surrogate users. If cognitive models could interact with the same interfaces that users do, the models would be easier to develop and would be easier to apply as interface(More)
Two experiments were carried out to examine the effect of interruption position and interruption duration on post-completion error (PCE) occurrences in a game-like procedural task. Experiment 1 showed a significant main effect of interruption position on PCE rate; significantly more PCEs were obtained when the interruption occurred just before the PC step(More)
The effects of known anxiolytic agents and putative anxiolytic agents were assessed in mice in a fully automated 2-compartment light/dark test. Significant increases in lit area activities (e.g., time spent in the lit area, locomotor activity, rearing behavior) were used as possible indicators of anxiolytic-like action. The measurement found most consistent(More)
Ephedrine, a structural analog of methamphetamine, is one of the major constituents of legally available herbal dietary supplements. Although racemic ephedrine and ephedra extract have been previously used as training drugs in drug discrimination studies, there is evidence that the two optical isomers of ephedrine do not produce identical amphetamine-like(More)
When users of interactive computers must work with new software without formal training , they rely on strategies for ''exploratory learning''. These include trial and error , asking for help from other users , and looking for information in printed and on-line documentation. This paper describes a cognitive model of exploratory learning , which covers both(More)