Richard M. Single

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The killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene cluster shows extensive genetic diversity, as do the HLA class I loci, which encode ligands for KIR molecules. We genotyped 1,642 individuals from 30 geographically distinct populations to examine population-level evidence for coevolution of these two functionally related but unlinked gene clusters. We(More)
Software to analyze multi-locus genotype data for entire populations is useful for estimating haplotype frequencies, deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and patterns of linkage disequilibrium. These statistical results are important to both those interested in human genome variation and disease predisposition as well as evolutionary genetics. As part(More)
The allelic and haplotypic diversity of the HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C loci was investigated in 852 subjects from five sub-Saharan populations from Kenya (Nandi and Luo), Mali (Dogon), Uganda, and Zambia. Distributions of genotypes at all loci and in all populations fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. There was not a single allele predominant at any(More)
Population genetic statistics from multilocus genotype data inform our understanding of the patterns of genetic variation and their implications for evolutionary studies, generally, and human disease studies in particular. In any given population one can estimate haplotype frequencies, identify deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, test for balancing(More)
Surgical resection of the primary tumor for patients who present with incurable stage IV colorectal cancer is controversial. National practice patterns have not been described. We evaluated the use of primary tumor resection in patients presenting with stage IV colorectal cancer. Patients with stage IV colorectal cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2000 were(More)
A number of statistical methods are widely used to describe allelic variation at specific genetic loci and its implication on the evolutionary history of these loci. Although the methods were developed primarily to study allelic variation at loci that are virtually always present in the genome, they are often applied to data of gene content variation (i.e.,(More)
This paper presents a meta-analysis of high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequency data describing 497 population samples. Most of the datasets were compiled from studies published in eight journals from 1990 to 2007; additional datasets came from the International Histocompatibility Workshops and from the AlleleFrequencies.net database.(More)
CONTEXT Health care reform calls for increasing physician accountability and transparency of outcomes. Partial mastectomy is the most commonly performed procedure for invasive breast cancer and often requires reexcision. Variability in reexcision might be reflective of the quality of care. OBJECTIVE To assess hospital and surgeon-specific variation in(More)
The extreme variability at the Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) locus along with that of the genes encoding their ligands, HLA class I, appears to modulate risk for viral, autoimmune, and malignant diseases, and reproductive failure. Differences in KIR gene and haplotype frequencies across world populations may reflect some combination of(More)
Many lines of evidence show that several HLA loci have experienced balancing selection. However, distinguishing among demographic and selective explanations for patterns of variation observed with HLA genes remains a challenge. In this study we address this issue using data from a diverse set of human populations at six classical HLA loci and, employing a(More)