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Population genetic statistics from multilocus genotype data inform our understanding of the patterns of genetic variation and their implications for evolutionary studies, generally, and human disease studies in particular. In any given population one can estimate haplotype frequencies, identify deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, test for balancing(More)
The killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene cluster shows extensive genetic diversity, as do the HLA class I loci, which encode ligands for KIR molecules. We genotyped 1,642 individuals from 30 geographically distinct populations to examine population-level evidence for coevolution of these two functionally related but unlinked gene clusters. We(More)
Software to analyze multi-locus genotype data for entire populations is useful for estimating haplotype frequencies, deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and patterns of linkage disequilibrium. These statistical results are important to both those interested in human genome variation and disease predisposition as well as evolutionary genetics. As part(More)
A number of statistical methods are widely used to describe allelic variation at specific genetic loci and its implication on the evolutionary history of these loci. Although the methods were developed primarily to study allelic variation at loci that are virtually always present in the genome, they are often applied to data of gene content variation (i.e.,(More)
The allelic and haplotypic diversity of the HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C loci was investigated in 852 subjects from five sub-Saharan populations from Kenya (Nandi and Luo), Mali (Dogon), Uganda, and Zambia. Distributions of genotypes at all loci and in all populations fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. There was not a single allele predominant at any(More)
CONTEXT Health care reform calls for increasing physician accountability and transparency of outcomes. Partial mastectomy is the most commonly performed procedure for invasive breast cancer and often requires reexcision. Variability in reexcision might be reflective of the quality of care. OBJECTIVE To assess hospital and surgeon-specific variation in(More)
The NSABP-32 trial is a randomized, phase III clinical trial to compare sentinel node (SN) resection to conventional axillary dissection in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. The primary aims of the trial are to determine if removal of only SNs provides survival and regional control equivalent to those of axillary dissection, while diminishing(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated whether electromyographic signals recorded from the skin surface overlying the multifidus muscles could be used to quantify their activity. DESIGN Comparison of electromyography signals recorded from electrodes on the back surface and from wire electrodes within four different slips of multifidus muscles of three human(More)
The MICA gene has a high degree of polymorphism. Allelic variation of MICA may influence binding of these ligands to the NK cell receptor NKG2D and may affect organ transplantation and/or disease pathogenesis. Knowledge of the population distribution of MICA alleles and their linkage disequilibrium (LD) with class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) will(More)
The extreme variability at the Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) locus along with that of the genes encoding their ligands, HLA class I, appears to modulate risk for viral, autoimmune, and malignant diseases, and reproductive failure. Differences in KIR gene and haplotype frequencies across world populations may reflect some combination of(More)