Richard M. Shiffrin

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The two-process theory of detection, search, and attention presented by Schneider and Shiffrin is tested and extended in a series of experiments. The studies demonstrate the qualitative difference between two modes of information processing: automatic detection and controlled search. They trace the course of the learning of automatic detection, of(More)
A new model of recognition memory is reported. This model is placed within, and introduces, a more elaborate theory that is being developed to predict the phenomena of explicit and implicit, and episodic and generic, memory. The recognition model is applied to basic findings, including phenomena that pose problems for extant models: the list-strength effect(More)
ion of categorical information. Journal of Ex-<lb>perimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cog-<lb>nition. Medin, D. L., & Schaffer, M. M. (1978). Context theory of classification learning. Psychological Review, 85, 207-<lb>238. Mclcalfe, J., & Murdock, B. B., Jr. (1981). An encoding<lb>and retrieval model of single-trial free recall. Journal<lb>of(More)
A two-process theory of human information processing is proposed and applied to detection, search, and attention phenomena. Automatic processing is activation of a learned sequence of elements in long-term memory that is initiated by appropriate inputs and then proceeds automatically—without subject control, without stressing the capacity limitations of the(More)
Responding optimally with unknown sources of evidence (ROUSE) is a theory of short-term priming applied to associative, orthographic-phonemic, and repetition priming. In our studies, perceptual identification is measured with two-alternative forced-choice testing. ROUSE assumes features activated by primes are confused with those activated by the target. A(More)
Extra items added to a list cause memory for the other items to decrease (the list-length effect). In one of the present studies we show that strengthening (or weakening) some items on a list harms (helps) free recall of the remaining list items. This is termed the list-strength effect. However, in seven recognition studies the list-strength effect was(More)
Ratcliff, Clark, and Shiffrin (1990) examined the list-strength effect: the effect of strengthening (or weakening) some list items upon memory for other list items. The list-strength effect was missing or negative in recognition, missing or positive in cued recall, and large and positive in free recall. We show that a large number of current models fail to(More)
A common assumption of theories of memory is that the meaning of a word can be represented by a vector which places a word as a point in a multidimensional semantic space (e.g. Landauer & Dumais, 1997; Burgess & Lund, 2000; Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum, 1957). Representing words as vectors in a multidimensional space allows simple geometric operations such as(More)