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SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA To inform surgeons about the practical issues to be considered for successful integration of virtual reality simulation into a surgical training program. The learning and practice of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) makes unique demands on surgical training programs. A decade ago Satava proposed virtual reality (VR) surgical(More)
We hypothesized that a simulator designed to train surgical novices angled laparoscopic navigation would show an improvement in subjects' performance, a high test re-test reliability and high internal validity as measured by standardized coefficient alpha. It was also predicted that simulator performance would be strongly related to objectively assess(More)
Medical applications for virtual reality (VR) technologies are just beginning to emerge. These include VR surgical simulators, telepresence surgery, complex medical database visualization, and rehabilitation. These applications are mediated through the computer interface and embody VR as an integral part of a paradigm shift in the field of medicine. The(More)
The analogy between Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) and the human language inspires the decomposition of a surgical task into its primary elements. The frequency of different elements or words" and their sequential associations or "grammar" both hold critical information about the process and outcome of the procedure. Modeling these sequential element(More)
We are developing a robotic system to assist a surgeon in placing spinal pedicle screws. While several groups have undertaken such systems, our approach differs in that it endeavors to remain as close to current clinical technique as possible, yet achieve stereotactic accuracy. This paper describes the conventional surgical methodology, justifies the need(More)