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SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA To inform surgeons about the practical issues to be considered for successful integration of virtual reality simulation into a surgical training program. The learning and practice of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) makes unique demands on surgical training programs. A decade ago Satava proposed virtual reality (VR) surgical(More)
The virtual-reality surgical simulator signals the beginning of an era of computer simulation for surgery. The surgical resident of the future will learn new perspectives on surgical anatomy and repeatedly practice surgical procedures until they are perfect before performing surgery on patients. Primitive though these initial steps are, they represent the(More)
The use of robotics has been emerging for approximately 75 years, but only during the past 5 years has the potential of robotics been recognized by the surgical community as a whole. This personal perspective chronicles the development of robotics for the general surgical community, the role of the military medical research effort, and many of the major(More)
The profound changes brought about by technology in the past few decades are leading to a total revolution in medicine. The advanced technologies of telepresence and virtual reality are but two of the manifestations emerging from our new information age; now all of medicine can be empowered because of this digital technology. The leading edge is on the(More)
BACKGROUND Laparoscopic surgery requires surgeons to infer the shape of 3-D structures, such as the internal organs of patients, from 2-D displays on a video monitor. Recent evidence indicates that the issue is not resolved by the use of contemporary 3-D camera systems. It is therefore crucial to find ways of measuring differences in aptitude for recovering(More)
In recent years, the question of medical errors has received increasing attention. To minimize or avoid errors, it is important to understand both the error itself and the factors leading up to it, as well as the type of error that has been committed. Simulators, which have gained increasing importance in surgical training, can also be useful to "teach"(More)
768 pages. The book presents all the necessary theory for the successful practice of automatic process control. The significance of the theory is explained at all times. Both introductory. Significant advances have been made in the field since the previous classic texts were written. This text brings the available knowledge up to date. * Enables the reader(More)
OBJECTIVE To demonstrate that virtual reality (VR) training transfers technical skills to the operating room (OR) environment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA The use of VR surgical simulation to train skills and reduce error risk in the OR has never been demonstrated in a prospective, randomized, blinded study. METHODS Sixteen surgical residents (PGY 1-4) had(More)
BACKGROUND Surgery is a skill-driven discipline. While other high-stake professions with comparable cognitive and psychomotor skill requirements often use warm-up exercises for achieving better proficiency, the effects of such practice have not been investigated sufficiently in surgical tasks. DESIGN Subjects performed standardized exercises as a(More)