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Approximately 50% of Helicobacter pylori strains produce a cytotoxin, encoded by vacA, that induces vacuolation of eukaryotic cells. Analysis of a clinically isolated tox- strain (Tx30a) indicated secretion of a 93-kDa product from a 3933-base pair vacA open reading frame. Characterization of 59 different H. pylori isolates indicated the existence of three(More)
Infection with Helicobacter pylori cagA-positive strains is associated with gastric adenocarcinoma. Intestinal metaplasia is a precancerous lesion of the stomach characterized by transdifferentiation of the gastric mucosa to an intestinal phenotype. The H. pylori cagA gene product, CagA, is delivered into gastric epithelial cells, where it undergoes(More)
Persistent gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori is the strongest known risk factor for adenocarcinoma of the distal stomach, yet only a fraction of colonized persons ever develop gastric cancer. The H. pylori cytotoxin-associated gene (cag) pathogenicity island encodes a type IV secretion system that delivers the bacterial effector CagA into host cells(More)
Helicobacter pylori is the strongest known risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, and strains that possess the cag secretion system, which translocates the bacterial effector CagA into host cells, augment cancer risk. H. pylori strains that express the vacuolating cytotoxin or the outer membrane protein OipA are similarly associated with severe pathologic(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether Helicobacter pylori activates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in gastric epithelial cells. Infection of AGS cells with an H. pylori cag+ strain rapidly (5 min) induced a dose-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) MAP kinases, as(More)
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) injects the CagA effector protein into host epithelial cells and induces growth factor-like signaling, perturbs cell-cell junctions, and alters host cell polarity. This enables Hp to grow as microcolonies adhered to the host cell surface even in conditions that do not support growth of free-swimming bacteria. We hypothesized that(More)
Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia of the stomach are common and are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. In the absence of guidelines, there is wide disparity in the management of patients with these premalignant conditions. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), the European(More)
Although gastric adenocarcinoma is associated with the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach, only a small fraction of colonized individuals develop this common malignancy. H. pylori strain and host genotypes probably influence the risk of carcinogenesis by differentially affecting host inflammatory responses and epithelial-cell physiology.(More)
To determine whether infection with a Helicobacter pylori strain possessing cagA is associated with an increased risk of development of adenocarcinoma of the stomach, we used a nested case-control study based on a cohort of 5443 Japanese-American men in Oahu, Hawaii, who had a physical examination and a phlebotomy during 1967 to 1970. We matched 103 H.(More)
The C-terminus of the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein is polymorphic, bearing different EPIYA sequences (EPIYA-A, B, C or D), and one or more CagA multimerization (CM) motifs. The number of EPIYA-C motifs is associated with precancerous lesions and gastric cancer (GC). The relationship between EPIYA, CM motifs and gastric lesions was examined in H.(More)