Learn More
Regulated secretory vesicle delivery, vesicle fusion and rapid membrane recycling are all contentious issues with respect to tip growth in plant, fungal and animal cells. To examine the organisation and dynamics of membrane movements at the growing pollen tube apex and address the question of their relationship to growth, we have used the membrane stain(More)
Confocal microscopy of amphiphilic styryl dyes has been used to investigate endocytosis and vesicle trafficking in living fungal hyphae. Hyphae were treated with FM4-64, FM1-43 or TMA-DPH, three of the most commonly used membrane-selective dyes reported as markers of endocytosis. All three dyes were rapidly internalized within hyphae. FM4-64 was found best(More)
Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that secrete lytic granules to directly kill virus-infected or transformed cells across an immune synapse. However, a major gap in understanding this process is in establishing how lytic granules pass through the mesh of cortical actin known to underlie the NK cell membrane. Research has been hampered by the(More)
The growing pollen tube provides an excellent single cell model system in which to study the mechanisms determining growth regulation, polarity and periodic behaviour. Previously, using FM4-64, we identified periodic movements within the apical vesicle accumulation that were related to the period of oscillatory growth. This suggested a more complex(More)
Cytoskeletal organization is central to establishing cell polarity in various cellular contexts, including during messenger ribonucleic acid sorting in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes by microtubule (MT)-dependent molecular motors. However, MT organization and dynamics remain controversial in the oocyte. In this paper, we use rapid multichannel live-cell(More)
The existence of pronounced cytoplasmic pH gradients within the apices of tip-growing cells, and the role of cytoplasmic pH in regulating tip growth, were investigated in three different cell types: vegetative hyphae of Neurospora crassa; pollen tubes of Agapanthus umbellatus; and rhizoids of Dryopteris affinis gametophytes. Examination of cytoplasmic pH in(More)
Intracellular mRNA localization directs protein synthesis to particular subcellular domains to establish embryonic polarity in a variety of organisms. In Drosophila, bicoid (bcd) mRNA is prelocalized at the oocyte anterior. After fertilization, translation of this RNA produces a Bcd protein gradient that determines anterior cell fates [1] and [2]. Analysis(More)
Localized mRNA provides spatial and temporal protein expression essential to cell development and physiology. To explore the mechanisms involved, considerable effort has been spent in establishing new and improved methods for visualizing mRNA. Here, we discuss how these techniques have extended our understanding of intracellular mRNA localization in a(More)
The primary embryonic axes in flies, frogs and fish are formed through translational regulation of localized transcripts before fertilization. In Drosophila melanogaster, the axes are established through the transport and translational regulation of gurken (grk) and bicoid (bcd) messenger RNA in the oocyte and embryo. Both transcripts are translationally(More)
Fluorescence imaging of dynamical processes in live cells often results in a low signal-to-noise ratio. We present a novel feature-preserving non-local means approach to denoise such images to improve feature recovery and particle detection. The commonly used non-local means filter is not optimal for noisy biological images containing small features of(More)