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Regulated secretory vesicle delivery, vesicle fusion and rapid membrane recycling are all contentious issues with respect to tip growth in plant, fungal and animal cells. To examine the organisation and dynamics of membrane movements at the growing pollen tube apex and address the question of their relationship to growth, we have used the membrane stain(More)
Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that secrete lytic granules to directly kill virus-infected or transformed cells across an immune synapse. However, a major gap in understanding this process is in establishing how lytic granules pass through the mesh of cortical actin known to underlie the NK cell membrane. Research has been hampered by the(More)
Cytoskeletal organization is central to establishing cell polarity in various cellular contexts, including during messenger ribonucleic acid sorting in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes by microtubule (MT)-dependent molecular motors. However, MT organization and dynamics remain controversial in the oocyte. In this paper, we use rapid multichannel live-cell(More)
Intracellular mRNA localization directs protein synthesis to particular subcellular domains to establish embryonic polarity in a variety of organisms. In Drosophila, bicoid (bcd) mRNA is prelocalized at the oocyte anterior. After fertilization, translation of this RNA produces a Bcd protein gradient that determines anterior cell fates [1] and [2]. Analysis(More)
Localized mRNA provides spatial and temporal protein expression essential to cell development and physiology. To explore the mechanisms involved, considerable effort has been spent in establishing new and improved methods for visualizing mRNA. Here, we discuss how these techniques have extended our understanding of intracellular mRNA localization in a(More)
The primary embryonic axes in flies, frogs and fish are formed through translational regulation of localized transcripts before fertilization. In Drosophila melanogaster, the axes are established through the transport and translational regulation of gurken (grk) and bicoid (bcd) messenger RNA in the oocyte and embryo. Both transcripts are translationally(More)
Fluorescence imaging of dynamical processes in live cells often results in a low signal-to-noise ratio. We present a novel feature-preserving non-local means approach to denoise such images to improve feature recovery and particle detection. The commonly used non-local means filter is not optimal for noisy biological images containing small features of(More)
Drosophila is an established system in which to study synaptic development, function, and plasticity. A particular advantage of the larval neuromuscular system is its consistent well-defined segmental arrangement of neurons and muscle targets. Indeed, the motor neurons of the Drosophila central nervous system are particularly well characterized in terms of(More)
Localization of bicoid mRNA to the anterior of the Drosophila oocyte is essential for patterning the anteroposterior body axis in the early embryo. bicoid mRNA localizes in a complex multistep process involving transacting factors, molecular motors and cytoskeletal components that remodel extensively during the lifetime of the mRNA. Genetic requirements for(More)
Activation is an essential process that accompanies fertilisation in all animals and heralds major cellular changes, most notably, resumption of the cell cycle. While activation involves wave-like oscillations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in mammals, ascidians and polychaete worms and a single Ca(2+) peak in fish and frogs, in insects, such as(More)