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Flow between concentric cylinders with the inner cylinder rotating and an axial pressure gradient imposed in the annulus reveals a rich variety of flow regimes depending on the flow conditions. The occurrence of these flow regimes was studied experimentally by both visually and optically detecting the transition from one flow regime to another over a wide(More)
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process that has potential for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants for recycling space mission wastewater. Seven candidate RO membranes were compared using a batch stirred cell to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for synthetic space mission wastewaters. Even though the urea molecule is larger(More)
Rejection characteristics of organic and inorganic compounds were examined for six reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and two nanofiltration (NF) membranes that are commercially available. A batch stirred-cell was employed to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for solutions at various concentrations and different pH conditions. The results(More)
Granular flow in a rotating tumbler is of theoretical and industrial significance. However, in spite of its relative simplicity, little is known about the dynamics of the top flowing layer. Here we present an experimental study of the velocity field within the fluidized layer of monodisperse particles in a quasi-2D ͑two-dimensional͒ rotating tumbler in the(More)
We investigate the effect of nanoscale variations in the surface roughness of individual particles on macroscale granular flow characteristics. Experiments were conducted in circular rotating tumblers with smooth and rough 2 and 3 mm steel particles. The smooth beads had a rms surface roughness of approximately 30 to 60 nm; rough beads had a surface(More)
The stability of supercritical Couette flow has been studied extensively, but few measurements of the velocity field of flow have been made. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the axial and radial velocities in a meridional plane for non-wavy and wavy Taylor–Couette flow in the annulus between a rotating inner cylinder and a fixed outer(More)
The stability of wavy supercritical cylindrical Couette flow has been studied extensively, but few measurements of the velocity field in flow have been made. Particle image velocimetry was used to measure the azimuthal and radial velocities in latitudinal planes perpendicular to the axis of rotation for wavy cylindrical Couette flow in the annulus between a(More)
Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical(More)
We consider the impact of the effective gravitational acceleration g{eff} on gravity-driven granular shear flow utilizing a tumbler of radius R rotating at angular velocity omega when g{eff} is varied up to 25 times the gravitational level on Earth in a large centrifuge. The Froude number Fr=omega{2}R/g{eff} is shown to be the proper scaling to characterize(More)