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Little is known about the ability of wetlands to remove disease-causing viruses from municipal wastewater. In this study we examined the survival of several indicators of viral pollution (indigenous F-specific bacteriophages, seeded MS2 bacteriophage, and seeded human poliovirus type 1) applied in primary municipal wastewater to artificial wetland(More)
This paper presents an examination of MSW generation and composition in China, providing an overview of the current state of MSW management, an analysis of existing problems in MSW collection, separation, recycling and disposal, and some suggestions for improving MSW systems in the future. In China, along with urbanization, population growth and(More)
A summary of all existing information collected since 1980 on contaminants in tilapia from the Salton Sea is presented and risks to humans and fish-eating birds assessed. Of the 17 trace elements, 42 organic pesticides and 48 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) analyzed in tilapia whole body and fillet samples, only selenium (Se), arsenic (As) and possibly(More)
A real-time RT-PCR method utilizing SYBR Green chemistry was developed to detect and enumerate hepatitis A virus (HAV) in ocean water. Ocean water samples were taken at the Tijuana River mouth (Tijuana, Mexico) and Imperial Beach pier (1.4 km north of the Tijuana River mouth in San Diego, California) following four separate rain events. A total of eight(More)
This study evaluated the effect of continuous and batch feeding on the removal of 8 pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, caffeine, salicylic acid, ketoprofen and clofibric acid) from synthetic wastewater in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs). Both loading modes were operated at hydraulic application rates of 5.6 cm day(-1)(More)
Determining the fate of emerging organic contaminants in an aquatic ecosystem is important for developing constructed wetlands (CWs) treatment technology. Experiments were carried out in subsurface flow CWs in Singapore to evaluate the fate and transport of eight pharmaceutical compounds. The CW system included three parallel horizontal subsurface flow CWs(More)
The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of batch versus continuous flow on the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (TP) in tropical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CW). The quantitative role of the higher aquatic plants in nutrient removal in these two operational modes was(More)
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment are regarded as emerging contaminants and have attracted increasing concern. The use of aquatic plant-based systems such as constructed wetlands (CWs) for treatment of conventional pollutants has been well documented. However, available research studies on aquatic plant-based(More)