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PURPOSE To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers. METHODS The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists convened an international Expert Panel that(More)
Adjuvant breast cancer therapy with tamoxifen is associated with greater disease-free survival and possibly overall survival. Long-term treatment, possibly of indefinite duration, is being evaluated. Compliance with long-term therapy will depend largely on the nature and severity of tamoxifen's side effects. We evaluated the symptoms associated with(More)
The current study examined the relationship of several variables at the patient (n = 2780), physician (n = 166), and group practice (n = 45) levels for predicting receipt of annual mammography screening. Patient-level variables included constructs from the Triandis Model of Choice; physician-level variables included measures of barriers and receptivity to(More)
BACKGROUND Because adjuvant tamoxifen citrate is given to women with early-stage breast cancer for long periods, it is important to know how it affects risk factors for osteoporotic bone fractures, particularly since rates of bone fracture increase rapidly with age in postmenopausal women. In a 2-year randomized placebo-controlled toxicity study in 140(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Tamoxifen, a synthetic antiestrogen, increases disease-free and overall survival when used as adjuvant therapy for primary breast cancer. Because it is given for long periods, it is important to know whether tamoxifen affects the skeleton, particularly since it is used extensively in postmenopausal women who are at risk for(More)
Progesterone receptor is a surrogate marker of estrogen receptor activity in breast cancer and its utility in helping predict clinical outcome has been established using biochemical assays. However, most laboratories worldwide have switched to immunohistochemistry to assess progesterone receptor, but unfortunately no validated immunohistochemical assay(More)
We studied 121 consecutive families referred to a cancer genetics clinic. The proband provided a detailed written history of cancers occurring in first, second and third degree relatives and we attempted to obtain medical records to validate each reported case of cancer. For 216 cases of cancer in 180 first degree relatives, the primary cancer site was(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of tamoxifen on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in disease-free postmenopausal women. DESIGN Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 2-year clinical trial. SETTING University health sciences center. PATIENTS Clinically postmenopausal women (140) with a diagnosis of axillary node-negative breast cancer,(More)
PURPOSE In 1992, the Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group reported that a meta-analysis of six randomized trials in European and North American women begun from 1948 to 1972 demonstrated disease-free and overall survival benefit from adjuvant ovarian ablation. Approximately 350,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed annually in(More)
We conducted a 2-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled toxicity trial of therapy with tamoxifen (10 mg twice a day) in 140 postmenopausal women with a history of breast cancer and histologically negative axillary lymph nodes. These women had been treated with surgery with or without radiotherapy. At a 3-month evaluation, tamoxifen-treated women(More)