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Budding in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a polarized deposition of new cell surface material that is associated with a highly asymmetric disposition of the actin cytoskeleton. Mutants defective in gene CDC24, which are unable to bud or establish cell polarity, have been of great interest with regard to both the mechanisms of cellular(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of the herpesvirus family, is the causative agent of common human infections and specific malignancies. EBV entry into target cells, including B cells and epithelial cells, requires the interaction of multiple virus-encoded glycoproteins. Glycoproteins H and L (gH/gL) cooperate with glycoprotein B (gB) to mediate fusion of(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) not only induces growth transformation in human B lymphocytes, but has more recently been shown to enhance B cell survival under suboptimal conditions where growth is inhibited; both effects are mediated through the coordinate action of eight virus-coded latent proteins. The effect upon cell survival is best recognized in(More)
The herpes simplex virus 1 genome consists of one long and one short stretch of unique sequences flanked by inverted repeat sequences. The nucleotide sequence and RNA map predict 12 open reading frames designated as US1 through US12 within the short stretch of unique sequences. This paper reports the construction of virus mutants from which US2, US3, or US4(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with the development of a variety of malignancies, including Hodgkin lymphoma. One of the few viral transcripts expressed in EBV-positive Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma is latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A). This viral protein blocks B-cell receptor (BCR)-signaling in vitro. Furthermore,(More)
A significant percentage of the population latently harbors Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in B cells. One EBV-encoded protein, latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A), is expressed in tissue culture models of EBV latent infection, in human infections, and in many of the EBV-associated proliferative disorders. LMP2A constitutively activates proteins involved in the(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus that efficiently transforms and immortalizes human primary B lymphocytes. In this study, the role of latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) in EBV growth transformation was investigated. LMP2 is a virally encoded membrane protein expressed in EBV-immortalized B cells previously shown to be nonessential for EBV(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpesvirus present in more than 90% of adults, is a major viral cofactor in certain tumors of lymphoid and epithelial tissues (1). Persistent infection is associated with malignancies and prolifera-tive syndromes typically of lymphoid and epithelial tissues (1), including Bur-kitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, certain(More)
In latently infected B lymphocytes, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) suppresses signal transduction from the antigen receptor through expression of the integral latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A). At the same time, LMP2A triggers B cell survival by a yet uncharacterized maintenance signal that is normally provided by the antigen receptor. The molecular(More)