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Triacylglycerol (TG) is a storage lipid which serves as an energy reservoir and a source of signalling molecules and substrates for membrane biogenesis. TG is essential for many physiological processes and its metabolism is widely conserved in nature. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyzes the final step in the(More)
Mammalian carboxylesterase (CES or Ces) genes encode enzymes that participate in xenobiotic, drug, and lipid metabolism in the body and are members of at least five gene families. Tandem duplications have added more genes for some families, particularly for mouse and rat genomes, which has caused confusion in naming rodent Ces genes. This article describes(More)
Excessive accumulation of triacylglycerol in peripheral tissues is tightly associated with obesity and has been identified as an independent risk factor for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. Here we show that ablation of carboxylesterase 3 (Ces3)/triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) expression in mice (Tgh(-/-)) results in(More)
A membrane-associated sn-1,2(2,3)-diacylglycerol transacylase activity was purified 550-fold from the microsomes of rat intestinal villus cells. The enzyme was solubilized with the zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate and was isolated and purified by sequential chromatography on hydroxylapatite, an anion(More)
Conventional preparations of intestinal microsomes were observed to incorporate acetone-solubilized 2-oleoyl-[2-3H]glycerol into dioleoylglycerophosphocholine in the presence of oleoyl CoA and CDP-choline. The apparent Km values for CDP-choline utilization were 77 +/- 10 microM in rat and 72 +/- 5 microM in hamster. The incorporation ratio of glycerol into(More)
Mouse esterase-x/carboxylesterase 1 (Es-x/Ces1) is a close homolog of triacylglycerol hydrolase/carboxylesterase 3 (TGH/Ces3). Es-x possesses a conserved esterase/lipase active site motif, suggesting that like TGH it could play a role in hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism. McArdle-RH7777 cells stably transfected with Es-x cDNA accumulated significantly(More)
Triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the lipolysis of intracellular stored triacylglycerol (TG). Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) regulate a multitude of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are PPAR ligands and fatty acids are produced via TGH activity, so we studied whether(More)
Statin inhibitors, used to control hypercholesterolemia, trigger apoptosis of hematologic tumor cells and therefore have immediate potential as anticancer agents. Evaluations of statins in acute myelogenous leukemia and multiple myeloma have shown that statin efficacy is mixed, with only a subset of tumor cells being highly responsive. Our goal was to(More)
Hydrolysis of triglycerides is central to energy homeostasis in white adipose tissue (WAT). Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was previously felt to mediate all lipolysis in WAT. Surprisingly, HSL-deficient mice show active HSL-independent lipolysis, suggesting that other lipase(s) also mediate triglyceride hydrolysis. To clarify this, we used functional(More)