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CONTEXT Severe gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a lifelong problem that can be complicated by peptic esophageal stricture and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. OBJECTIVE To determine the long-term outcome of medical and surgical therapies for GERD. DESIGN AND SETTING Follow-up study conducted from October 1997 through October 1999 of a(More)
The incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), play an important role in glucose homeostasis in both health and diabetes. In mice, sucralose, an artificial sweetener, stimulates GLP-1 release via sweet taste receptors on enteroendocrine cells. We studied blood glucose, plasma levels of insulin,(More)
PURPOSE The prevalence of myopia among some young Asian populations has been reported to be increasing to near epidemic proportions. Mongolia is an emerging Asian economy with limited ophthalmic resources. The purpose of this study was to define a level of myopia for school-aged children in rural Mongolia. METHODS A total of 1057 schoolchildren, aged(More)
Structurally, methcathinone is to cathinone what methamphetamine is to amphetamine. Due to increased interest in the abuse of such agents we wished to determine if certain derivatives of cathinone would behave in a manner consistent with what is known about their amphetamine counterparts; that is, can amphetamine structure-activity relationships be(More)
Ephedrine is a long-studied stimulant available both as a prescription and over-the-counter medication, as well as an ingredient in widely marketed herbal preparations, and is also used as a precursor for the illicit synthesis of methamphetamine. Ephedrine is related to phenylpropanolamine, a decongestant removed from the market place due to concerns that(More)
The effects of known anxiolytic agents and putative anxiolytic agents were assessed in mice in a fully automated 2-compartment light/dark test. Significant increases in lit area activities (e.g., time spent in the lit area, locomotor activity, rearing behavior) were used as possible indicators of anxiolytic-like action. The measurement found most consistent(More)
  • R Young
  • 1992
A 4-methyl derivative of aminorex has recently appeared on the clandestine market as a designer drug. In the present study, the stimulus effects of aminorex itself were evaluated in rats trained to discriminate either 0.75 mg/kg S(+)-amphetamine or 1.5 mg/kg fenfluramine from saline. The amphetamine stimulus (ED50 = 0.14 mg/kg) generalized to aminorex (ED50(More)
Clobenzorex, an optically active N-substituted derivative of (+)amphetamine, has been identified on the illicit market. Because so little is known regarding the pharmacology or abuse potential of this agent, it was examined in tests of stimulus generalization in rats trained to discriminate 1 mg/kg of (+)amphetamine from vehicle to determine if it would(More)
Numerous studies have suggested that the central alpha2-adrenergic receptor system may exert an important role in some types of human anxiety. The anxiolytic-like activity and potential side effect-like activities of the novel and purported alpha2-adrenergic compound TDIQ (5,6,7,8-1,3-dioxolo[4,5-g]isoquinoline) were compared to those of the anxiolytic(More)
Nutrient-evoked gastrointestinal reflexes are likely initiated by specialized epithelial cells located in the small intestine that detect luminal stimuli and release mediators that activate vagal endings. The G-protein alpha-gustducin, a key signal molecule in lingual taste detection, has been identified in mouse small intestine, where it may also subserve(More)