Richard L. Williams

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The resorption of brushite-based bone cements has been shown to be highly unpredictable, with strong dependence on a number of conditions. One of the major factors is phase transformation, with change to more stable phases such as hydroxyapatite affecting the rate of resorption. Despite its importance, the analysis of phase transformation has been largely(More)
Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloy-based metal-on-metal prostheses have been the implant of choice for total hip replacement in younger patients. However 6.2% of patients require revision of their CoCrMo total hip replacement (THR) implant within five years of surgery and their use was restricted in 2013. We aimed to determine if there were(More)
OBJECTIVES MicroCT allows the complex canal network of teeth to be mapped but does not readily distinguish between structural tissue (dentine) and the debris generated during cleaning. The aim was to introduce a validated approach for identifying debris following routine instrumentation and disinfection. METHODS The mesial canals of 12 mandibular molars(More)
Calcium phosphate coatings have been applied to the surface of metallic prostheses to mediate hard and soft tissue attachment for more than 40years. Most coatings are formed of high purity hydroxyapatite, and coating methods are often designed to produce highly crystalline surfaces. It is likely however, that coatings of lower crystallinity can facilitate(More)
Progress in tissue engineering is now impacting beyond the field of regenerative medicine. Engineered tissues are now used as tools to evaluate the toxicity of compounds or even to enable the modelling of disease. While many of the materials that are used to facilitate tissue growth are designed to enable cell attachment, many researchers consider that the(More)
Current processes for coating titanium implants with ceramics involve very high energy techniques with associated high cost and disadvantages such as heterogeneity of the coatings, phase transformations and inability to coat complex structures. In order to address the above problems, we propose a biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating process with the use of(More)
Calcium phosphate (CaPO4) tubes with features comparable to mineralized biological microstructures, such as Haversian canals, were grown from a calcium gel/phosphate solution chemical garden system. A significant difference in gel mass in response to high and low solute phosphate equivalent environments existed within 30 min of solution layering upon gel (p(More)
The interface between implanted devices and their host tissue is complex and is often optimized for maximal integration and cell adhesion. However, this also gives a surface suitable for bacterial colonization. We have developed a novel method of modifying the surface at the material-tissue interface with an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) coating to allow cell(More)
BACKGROUND To allow measurements of surface roughness to be made of coronary arteries using various imaging techniques, chemical processing, such as fixation and dehydration, is commonly used. Standard protocols suggest storing fresh biological tissue at -40°C. The aim of this study was to quantify the changes caused by freezing and chemical processing to(More)
The need to quantify physicochemical properties of mineralization spans many fields. Clinicians, mineralization researchers, and bone tissue bioengineers need to be able to measure the distribution, quantity, and the mechanical and chemical properties of mineralization within a wide variety of substrates from injured muscle to electrospun polymer scaffolds(More)