Richard L. Whitman

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Dunes Creek, a small Lake Michigan coastal stream that drains sandy aquifers and wetlands of Indiana Dunes, has chronically elevated Escherichia coli levels along the bathing beach near its outfall. This study sought to understand the sources of E. coli in Dunes Creek's central branch. A systematic survey of random and fixed sampling points of water and(More)
Swimming advisories due to excessive Escherichia coli concentrations are common at 63rd Street Beach, Chicago, Ill. An intensive study was undertaken to characterize the source and fate of E. coli in beach water and sand at the beach. From April through September 2000, water and sand samples were collected daily or twice daily at two depths on three(More)
Sarracenia purpurea L., a carnivorous bog plant (also known as the pitcher plant), represents an excellent model of a well-defined, self-contained ecosystem; the individual pitchers of the plant serve as a microhabitat for a variety of micro- and macro-organisms. Previously, fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) were shown as(More)
Each summer, the nuisance green alga Cladophora (mostly Cladophora glomerata) amasses along Lake Michigan beaches, creating nearshore anoxia and unsightly, malodorous mats that can attract problem animals and detract from visitor enjoyment. Traditionally, elevated counts of Escherichia coli are presumed to indicate the presence of sewage, mostly derived(More)
We studied the shoreward and seasonal distribution of E. coil and enterococci in sand (at the water table) at two southern Lake Michigan beaches-Dunbar and West Beach (in Indiana). Deep, backshore sand (approximately 20 m inland) was regularly sampled for 15 months during 2002-2003. E. coli counts were not significantly different in samples taken at 5-m(More)
To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risks associated with swimming, the near-shore waters of Lake Michigan and two tributaries discharging into it were examined for bacterial indicators of human fecal pollution. The enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence(More)
Studies on solar inactivation of Escherichia coli in freshwater and in situ have been limited. At 63rd St. Beach, Chicago, Ill., factors influencing the daily periodicity of culturable E. coli, particularly insolation, were examined. Water samples for E. coli analysis were collected twice daily between April and September 2000 three times a week along five(More)
Cladophora glomerata, a macrophytic green alga, is commonly found in the Great Lakes, and significant accumulations occur along shorelines during the summer months. Recently, Cladophora has been shown to harbor high densities of the fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci. Cladophora may also harbor human pathogens; however, until now, no(More)
AIMS The absence of standardized methods for quantifying faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in sand hinders comparison of results across studies. The purpose of the study was to compare methods for extraction of faecal bacteria from sands and recommend a standardized extraction technique. METHODS AND RESULTS Twenty-two methods of extracting enterococci and(More)
Quantitative PCR (QPCR) technology, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan) chemistry, was utilized for the specific detection and quantification of six pathogenic species of Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. lusitaniae) in water. Known numbers of target cells were added to distilled and tap water(More)