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The tissue contents of the reactants of the myokinase (EC 2.7.4.3) and the combined glyceraldehyde-3-phophate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.29)-3-phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) reactions were measured in rapidly inactivated samples of human blood and rat brain, muscle, and liver. The tissue contents of the reactants of the creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2)(More)
The observed equilibrium constants (Kobs) of the creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2), myokinase (EC 2.7.4.3), glucose-6-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.9), and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11) reactions have been determined at 38 degrees C, pH 7.0, ionic strength 0.25, and varying free magnesium concentrations. The equilibrium constant (KCK) for the creatine kinase(More)
The effects of ketone body metabolism suggests that mild ketosis may offer therapeutic potential in a variety of different common and rare disease states. These inferences follow directly from the metabolic effects of ketosis and the higher inherent energy present in d-beta-hydroxybutyrate relative to pyruvate, the normal mitochondrial fuel produced by(More)
Sir2 is a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase that controls gene silencing, cell cycle, DNA damage repair, and life span. Prompted by the observation that the [NAD(+)]/[NADH] ratio is subjected to dynamic fluctuations in skeletal muscle, we have tested whether Sir2 regulates muscle gene expression and differentiation. Sir2 forms a complex with the(More)
Fatty liver, formerly associated predominantly with excessive alcohol intake, is now also recognized as a complication of obesity and an important precursor state to more severe forms of liver pathology including ischemia/reperfusion injury. No standard protocol for treating fatty liver exists at this time. We therefore examined the effects of 10 days of(More)
Metabolic control analyses of glucose utilization were performed for four groups of working rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 10 mM glucose only, or with the addition of 4 mM D-beta-hydroxybutyrate/1 mM acetoacetate, 100 nM insulin (0.05 unit/ml), or both. Net glycogen breakdown occurred in the glucose group only and was converted(More)
D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, the principal "ketone" body in starving man, displaces glucose as the predominating fuel for brain, decreasing the need for glucose synthesis in liver (and kidney) and accordingly spares its precursor, muscle-derived amino acids. Thus normal 70 kg. man survives 2-3 months of starvation instead of several weeks, and obese man many(More)
Moderate doses of alcohol decrease glucose metabolism in the human brain, which has been interpreted to reflect alcohol-induced decreases in brain activity. Here, we measure the effects of two relatively low doses of alcohol (0.25 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg, or 5 to 10 mM in total body H2O) on glucose metabolism in the human brain. Twenty healthy control subjects(More)
For many years after Warburg's classic work, it was generally assumed that tumors produced large amounts of lactic acid and consequently had an acidic intracellular pHi. However, with the advent of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), a non-invasive in vivo measure of tissue pH became available and demonstrated that in both human and animal tumors, pHi(More)
Ketosis, meaning elevation of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate (R-3hydroxybutyrate) and acetoacetate, has been central to starving man's survival by providing nonglucose substrate to his evolutionarily hypertrophied brain, sparing muscle from destruction for glucose synthesis. Surprisingly, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate (abbreviated "betaOHB") may also provide a more(More)