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The tissue contents of the reactants of the myokinase (EC 2.7.4.3) and the combined glyceraldehyde-3-phophate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.29)-3-phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) reactions were measured in rapidly inactivated samples of human blood and rat brain, muscle, and liver. The tissue contents of the reactants of the creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2)(More)
The observed equilibrium constants (Kobs) of the creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2), myokinase (EC 2.7.4.3), glucose-6-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.9), and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11) reactions have been determined at 38 degrees C, pH 7.0, ionic strength 0.25, and varying free magnesium concentrations. The equilibrium constant (KCK) for the creatine kinase(More)
The heroin analogue 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, MPP(+), both in vitro and in vivo, produces death of dopaminergic substantia nigral cells by inhibiting the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase multienzyme complex, producing a syndrome indistinguishable from Parkinson's disease. Similarly, a fragment of amyloid protein, Abeta(1-42), is lethal to hippocampal(More)
Metabolic control analyses of glucose utilization were performed for four groups of working rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 10 mM glucose only, or with the addition of 4 mM D-beta-hydroxybutyrate/1 mM acetoacetate, 100 nM insulin (0.05 unit/ml), or both. Net glycogen breakdown occurred in the glucose group only and was converted(More)
The effects of ketone body metabolism suggests that mild ketosis may offer therapeutic potential in a variety of different common and rare disease states. These inferences follow directly from the metabolic effects of ketosis and the higher inherent energy present in d-beta-hydroxybutyrate relative to pyruvate, the normal mitochondrial fuel produced by(More)
Endurance muscle performance is highly dependent on ATP production from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. To study the role of the mitochondrial oxidative enzymes in muscle fatigue, we analyzed the relationship between the concentrations of substrates associated with ATP synthesis and the muscle performance of electrically stimulated rabbit muscle(More)
1. The concentrations of the oxidized and reduced substrates of the ;malic' enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) were measured in freeze-clamped rat livers. By assuming that the reactants of these dehydrogenase systems are at equilibrium in the cytoplasm the [free NADP(+)]/[free NADPH] ratio was calculated. The justification of(More)
Sir2 is a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase that controls gene silencing, cell cycle, DNA damage repair, and life span. Prompted by the observation that the [NAD(+)]/[NADH] ratio is subjected to dynamic fluctuations in skeletal muscle, we have tested whether Sir2 regulates muscle gene expression and differentiation. Sir2 forms a complex with the(More)
1. The ratio [ATP]/[ADP][P(i)], as measured by direct determination of the three components in rat liver, was found in various nutritional states to have approximately the same value as the ratio [ATP]/[ADP][P(i)] calculated from the concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glyceraldehyde phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate on the assumption that lactate(More)
1. Acute NH(4) (+) toxicity was studied by using a new apparatus that removes and freezes the brains of conscious rats within 1s. 2. Brains were removed and frozen 5min after intraperitoneal injection of ammonium acetate (2-3min before the onset of convulsions). Arterial [NH(4) (+)] rose from less than 0.01 to 1.74mm at 4-5min. The concentrations of all(More)