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Moderate doses of alcohol decrease glucose metabolism in the human brain, which has been interpreted to reflect alcohol-induced decreases in brain activity. Here, we measure the effects of two relatively low doses of alcohol (0.25 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg, or 5 to 10 mM in total body H2O) on glucose metabolism in the human brain. Twenty healthy control subjects(More)
The heroin analogue 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, MPP(+), both in vitro and in vivo, produces death of dopaminergic substantia nigral cells by inhibiting the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase multienzyme complex, producing a syndrome indistinguishable from Parkinson's disease. Similarly, a fragment of amyloid protein, Abeta(1-42), is lethal to hippocampal(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves progressive accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and neurofibrillary pathologies, and glucose hypometabolism in brain regions critical for memory. The 3xTgAD mouse model was used to test the hypothesis that a ketone ester-based diet can ameliorate AD pathogenesis. Beginning at a presymptomatic age, 2 groups of male 3xTgAD(More)
  • M Stubbs, L Rodrigues, +4 authors J R Griffiths
  • 1994
We have previously demonstrated (M. Stubbs, Z. M. Bhujwalla, G. M. Tozer, L. M. Rodrigues, R. J. Maxwell, R. Morgan, F. A. Howe, and J. R. Griffiths, NMR Biomed., 5: 351, 1992) that the intracellular pH (pHi) of several rat tumors is higher (> pH 7.0) than that of the tumor extracellular fluid (pHe), in contrast to normal tissues (e.g., liver) in which pHi(More)
BACKGROUND Providing ketone bodies to the brain can bypass metabolic blocks to glucose utilization and improve function in energy-starved neurons. For this, plasma ketones must be elevated well above the ≤ 0.2 mM default concentrations normally prevalent. Limitations of dietary methods currently used to produce therapeutic hyperketonemia have stimulated the(More)
The heroin analogue 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, MPP ؉ , both in vitro and in vivo, produces death of dopaminergic substantia nigral cells by inhibiting the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase mul-tienzyme complex, producing a syndrome indistinguishable from Parkinson's disease. Similarly, a fragment of amyloid protein, A␤1–42, is lethal to hippocampal cells,(More)
Rapid inactivation of metabolism is essential for accurately determining the concentrations of metabolic intermediates in the in vivo state. We compared a broad spectrum of energetic intermediate metabolites and neurotransmitters in brains obtained by microwave irradiation to those obtained by freeze blowing, the most rapid method of extracting and freezing(More)
In response to carbohydrate deprivation or prolonged fasting the ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) and acetoacetate (AcAc), are produced from the incomplete β-oxidation of fatty acids in the liver. Neither βHB nor AcAc are well utilized for synthesis of sterols or fatty acids in human or rat liver. To study the effects of ketones on cholesterol(More)
Ketosis induced by starvation or feeding a ketogenic diet has widespread and often contradictory effects due to the simultaneous elevation of both ketone bodies and free fatty acids. The elevation of ketone bodies increases the energy of ATP hydrolysis by reducing the mitochondrial NAD couple and oxidizing the coenzyme Q couple, thus increasing the redox(More)