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Anatomical partitioning has been found in the human biceps brachii, extensor carpi radialis longus and flexor carpi radialis muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine if the human extensor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus are anatomically partitioned. Evidence for or against anatomical partitioning was obtained by(More)
1. Nine subjects received 6 baseline and 24 training sessions, each consisting of 250 elbow joint stretch perturbations into extension. The training sessions were designed to reduce the subjects' biceps brachii spinal stretch reflexes (SSR). Changes in longer-latency responses and short-latency brachioradialis responses were also monitored. Background(More)
To examine neuromuscular partitioning within human muscles, the innervation patterns and muscle fiber architecture of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles were examined. Consistent patterns of innervation between specimens were found within each of the three muscles. The nerve to the(More)
The projection from the lateral suprasylvian visual areas to the superior colliculus was investigated in cats using both anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques. The retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or wheat germ agglutinin-HRP (WGA-HRP) from their site of deposit in the superior colliculus indicates that all divisions of the(More)
Modulation of the human spinal stretch reflex (SSR) may be important in treating hyperactive reflexes or may be a tool to enhance normal performance. Eight of 9 subjects given feedback of biceps brachii SSR amplitude and instructed to increase (uptrain) or decrease (downtrain) this response were able to do so in the appropriate direction. These results(More)
Hyperactive spinal stretch reflexes (SSRs) often occur with spinal cord injuries (SCI). These altered SSRs may impair movement. Recent studies in monkeys and human subjects have indicated that the magnitude of SSRs can be modulated using operant conditioning. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hyperactive biceps brachii SSRs could be(More)
This review article is designed to expose physical therapists to an examination of muscle organization and the implications that this organization has for therapeutic applications. The partitioning hypothesis is based on the fact that an individual muscle is arranged in a more complex array than simply fibers attaching at aponeuroses, tendons, or bones with(More)
Results from previous studies on monkeys and human subjects have demonstrated that the biceps brachii spinal stretch reflex (SSR) can be operantly conditioned. The extent to which conditioning paradigms influence contralateral SSRs or longer latency responses in the same limb has not been examined. Nine subjects were given 10 training sessions to either(More)
Studies in monkey models have demonstrated that spinal stretch reflexes (SSRs) can be conditioned to be smaller or larger. Results of H-reflex conditioning studies further support the concept that operant conditioning alters the anatomical and biophysical properties of targeted alpha motoneurons. Results from able-bodied human subjects are strikingly(More)
Twenty normal human subjects (mean age: 25.9, range: 22-40) performed specific lower extremity functional tasks while integrated electromyographic (IEMG) activity was recorded from the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle. The electrode placements used corresponded with sites known to have distinct patterns of innervation based upon previous anatomical(More)