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Vascular disease risk is inversely related to circulating levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. However, the mechanisms by which HDL provides vascular protection are unclear. The disruption of endothelial monolayer integrity is an important contributing factor in multiple vascular disorders, and vascular lesion severity is tempered by(More)
Lipoproteins of Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi possess potent proinflammatory properties and, thus, have been implicated as major proinflammatory agonists in syphilis and Lyme disease. Here we used purified B. burgdorferi outer surface protein A (OspA) and synthetic lipopeptides corresponding to the N-termini of OspA and the 47-kDa major(More)
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that lack acyloxyacyl groups can antagonize responses to LPS in human cells. Although the site and mechanism of inhibition are not known, it has been proposed that these inhibitory molecules compete with LPS for a common cellular target such as a cell-surface binding receptor. In the present study, we used an in vitro model system(More)
Host recognition and disposal of LPS, an important Gram-negative bacterial signal molecule, may involve intracellular processes. We have therefore analyzed the initial pathways by which LPS, a natural ligand of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored CD14 (CD14-GPI), enters CD14-expressing THP-1 cells and normal human monocytes. Exposure of the cells to(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays important roles in lipid homeostasis, anti-inflammation, and host defense. Since tissue apoE mRNA levels have been reported to decrease during inflammatory responses, we were surprised to find that plasma apoE levels were significantly elevated during septic infections in both humans and mice. This apparent paradox was also(More)
We analyzed the impact of ligand aggregation and LPS-induced signaling on CD14-dependent LPS internalization kinetics in human monocytic THP-1 cells and murine macrophages. Using two independent methods, we found that the initial rate and extent of LPS internalization increased with LPS aggregate size. In the presence of LPS binding protein (LBP), large LPS(More)
Prior reports have suggested that CD14 mediates uptake of Mycobacterium tuberculosis into porcine alveolar macrophages and human fetal microglia, but the contribution of CD14 to cell entry in human macrophages has not been studied. To address this question, we used flow cytometry to quantify uptake by human monocytes and alveolar macrophages of M.(More)
We describe here a previously unrecognized property of dendritic cells (DCs), the ability to deacylate the lipid A moiety of gram-negative bacterial LPSs. Both immature DCs of the XS52 cell line and bone marrow-derived DCs produce acyloxyacyl hydrolase, an enzyme that detoxifies LPS by selectively removing the secondary acyl chains from lipid A. Acyloxyacyl(More)
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