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This article summarizes the new 2011 report on dietary requirements for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine (IOM). An IOM Committee charged with determining the population needs for these nutrients in North America conducted a comprehensive review of the evidence for both skeletal and extraskeletal outcomes. The Committee concluded that(More)
In innate immune responses, activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers direct antimicrobial activity against intracellular bacteria, which in murine, but not human, monocytes and macrophages is mediated principally by nitric oxide. We report here that TLR activation of human macrophages up-regulated expression of the vitamin D receptor and the(More)
In mammals, several gene families encode peptides with antibacterial activity, such as the beta-defensins and cathelicidins. These peptides are expressed on epithelial surfaces and in neutrophils, and have been proposed to provide a first line of defence against infection by acting as 'natural antibiotics'. The protective effect of antimicrobial peptides is(More)
The presence of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides provides an important mechanism for prevention of infection against a wide variety of microbial pathogens. The activity of cathelicidin is controlled by enzymatic processing of the proform (hCAP18 in humans) to a mature peptide (LL-37 in human neutrophils). In this study, elements important to the(More)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are widely expressed and rapidly induced at epithelial surfaces to repel assault from diverse infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Much information suggests that AMPs act by mechanisms that extend beyond their capacity to serve as gene-encoded antibiotics. For example, some AMPs alter the(More)
Cathelicidins are the precursors of potent antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in several mammalian species. Prior work has suggested that members of this gene family can participate in host defense through their antimicrobial effects and activate mesenchymal cells during wound repair. To permit further study of these proteins a reverse(More)
BACKGROUND The innate immune system of human skin contains antimicrobial peptides known as cathelicidins (LL-37) and beta-defensins. In normal skin these peptides are negligible, but they accumulate in skin affected by inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. We compared the levels of expression of LL-37 and human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) in inflamed skin(More)
Cathelicidins are a class of small cationic peptide antibiotics that are expressed in skin and in other epithelial cells and are an active component of mammalian innate immunity. Human cathelicidin (hCAP18/LL-37) consists of a conserved prosequence called the cathelin-like domain and a C-terminal peptide named LL-37. To date, our understanding of the(More)
Inflammation under sterile conditions is not well understood despite its importance in trauma and autoimmune disease. To investigate this process we established mouse models of sterile injury and explored the role of hyaluronan in mediating inflammation following injury. The response of cultured monocytes to hyaluronan was different than the response to(More)