Richard L Gallo

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Department of Nutritional Sciences (A.C.R.), Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802; Department of Medicine (J.E.M.), Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; Department of Pediatrics (S.A.A.), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030; Department of Medicine (J.F.A.), State(More)
In innate immune responses, activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers direct antimicrobial activity against intracellular bacteria, which in murine, but not human, monocytes and macrophages is mediated principally by nitric oxide. We report here that TLR activation of human macrophages up-regulated expression of the vitamin D receptor and the(More)
Cathelicidins are the precursors of potent antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in several mammalian species. Prior work has suggested that members of this gene family can participate in host defense through their antimicrobial effects and activate mesenchymal cells during wound repair. To permit further study of these proteins a reverse(More)
In mammals, several gene families encode peptides with antibacterial activity, such as the beta-defensins and cathelicidins. These peptides are expressed on epithelial surfaces and in neutrophils, and have been proposed to provide a first line of defence against infection by acting as 'natural antibiotics'. The protective effect of antimicrobial peptides is(More)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are widely expressed and rapidly induced at epithelial surfaces to repel assault from diverse infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Much information suggests that AMPs act by mechanisms that extend beyond their capacity to serve as gene-encoded antibiotics. For example, some AMPs alter the(More)
Hypoxia is a characteristic feature of the tissue microenvironment during bacterial infection. Here we report on our use of conditional gene targeting to examine the contribution of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (HIF-1alpha) to myeloid cell innate immune function. HIF-1alpha was induced by bacterial infection, even under normoxia, and regulated(More)
Acne rosacea is an inflammatory skin disease that affects 3% of the US population over 30 years of age and is characterized by erythema, papulopustules and telangiectasia. The etiology of this disorder is unknown, although symptoms are exacerbated by factors that trigger innate immune responses, such as the release of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides.(More)
Cathelicidins are a family of peptides thought to provide an innate defensive barrier against a variety of potential microbial pathogens. The human and mouse cathelicidins (LL-37 and CRAMP, respectively) are expressed at select epithelial interfaces where they have been proposed to kill a number of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. To determine if(More)
An essential element of the innate immune response to injury is the capacity to recognize microbial invasion and stimulate production of antimicrobial peptides. We investigated how this process is controlled in the epidermis. Keratinocytes surrounding a wound increased expression of the genes coding for the microbial pattern recognition receptors CD14 and(More)