Richard L. Freyman

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Spatial separation of speech and noise in an anechoic space creates a release from masking that often improves speech intelligibility. However, the masking release is severely reduced in reverberant spaces. This study investigated whether the distinct and separate localization of speech and interference provides any perceptual advantage that, due to the(More)
Three experiments were conducted to determine the extent to which perceived separation of speech and interference improves speech recognition in the free field. Target speech stimuli were 320 grammatically correct but nonmeaningful sentences spoken by a female talker. In the first experiment the interference was a recording of either one or two female(More)
Three experiments investigated factors that influence the creation of and release from informational masking in speech recognition. The target stimuli were nonsense sentences spoken by a female talker. In experiment 1 the masker was a mixture of three, four, six, or ten female talkers, all reciting similar nonsense sentences. Listeners' recognition(More)
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the dependence of echo suppression on the auditory stimulation just prior to a test stimulus. Subjects sat in an anechoic chamber between two loudspeakers, one which presented the "lead" sound, and the other the delayed "lag" sound. In the first experiment, subjects reported whether or not they heard an echo(More)
OBJECTIVES A common complaint of many older adults is difficulty communicating in situations where they must focus on one talker in the presence of other people speaking. In listening environments containing multiple talkers, age-related changes may be caused by increased sensitivity to energetic masking, increased susceptibility to informational masking(More)
Two experiments compared the effect of supplying visual speech information (e.g., lipreading cues) on the ability to hear one female talker's voice in the presence of steady-state noise or a masking complex consisting of two other female voices. In the first experiment intelligibility of sentences was measured in the presence of the two types of maskers(More)
Two experiments investigated the impact of reverberation and masking on speech understanding using cochlear implant (CI) simulations. Experiment 1 tested sentence recognition in quiet. Stimuli were processed with reverberation simulation (T=0.425, 0.266, 0.152, and 0.0 s) and then either processed with vocoding (6, 12, or 24 channels) or were subjected to(More)
Channel vocoders using either tone or band-limited noise carriers have been used in experiments to simulate cochlear implant processing in normal-hearing listeners. Previous results from these experiments have suggested that the two vocoder types produce speech of nearly equal intelligibility in quiet conditions. The purpose of this study was to further(More)
Frequency difference limens (DLFs) for pure tones were obtained over a wide range of frequencies and levels from 7 normal-hearing subjects and 16 ears of 12 listeners with sensorineural hearing losses. The normal data were fitted with a general prediction equation. Variability of the data around the DLFs estimated by the equation was quantified and used to(More)
When listeners hear sound presented repeatedly in a room with reflections, echo threshold rises. The current experiments tested how long this buildup in echo threshold would last when exposure to a different simulated space (designated as room B) intervened before returning to the original space (designated room A). Stimuli were trains of lead-lag click(More)