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Spatial separation of speech and noise in an anechoic space creates a release from masking that often improves speech intelligibility. However, the masking release is severely reduced in reverberant spaces. This study investigated whether the distinct and separate localization of speech and interference provides any perceptual advantage that, due to the(More)
Three experiments were conducted to determine the extent to which perceived separation of speech and interference improves speech recognition in the free field. Target speech stimuli were 320 grammatically correct but nonmeaningful sentences spoken by a female talker. In the first experiment the interference was a recording of either one or two female(More)
Three experiments investigated factors that influence the creation of and release from informational masking in speech recognition. The target stimuli were nonsense sentences spoken by a female talker. In experiment 1 the masker was a mixture of three, four, six, or ten female talkers, all reciting similar nonsense sentences. Listeners' recognition(More)
OBJECTIVES A common complaint of many older adults is difficulty communicating in situations where they must focus on one talker in the presence of other people speaking. In listening environments containing multiple talkers, age-related changes may be caused by increased sensitivity to energetic masking, increased susceptibility to informational masking(More)
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the dependence of echo suppression on the auditory stimulation just prior to a test stimulus. Subjects sat in an anechoic chamber between two loudspeakers, one which presented the "lead" sound, and the other the delayed "lag" sound. In the first experiment, subjects reported whether or not they heard an echo(More)
Frequency-discrimination thresholds, for a wide range of stimulus frequencies and stimulus levels, were obtained from three normal-hearing listeners. Linear regression analyses of the present data, and of data from two previous studies, indicate that an SL-1 transformation of stimulus level and a square root F transformation of stimulus frequency yield(More)
The precedence effect was tested as a function of echo-click delay and click rate after an abrupt switch in location between leading and lagging clicks. Click trains at three rates, 1/sec, 2/sec, and 4/sec, with delays ranging between 2 and 20 msec, were presented to subjects in an anechoic chamber. Duration of the click train after the switch in location(More)
Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to(More)
Two experiments investigated the impact of reverberation and masking on speech understanding using cochlear implant (CI) simulations. Experiment 1 tested sentence recognition in quiet. Stimuli were processed with reverberation simulation (T=0.425, 0.266, 0.152, and 0.0 s) and then either processed with vocoding (6, 12, or 24 channels) or were subjected to(More)
This study investigated the role of uncertainty in masking of speech by interfering speech. Target stimuli were nonsense sentences recorded by a female talker. Masking sentences were recorded from ten female talkers and combined into pairs. Listeners' recognition performance was measured with both target and masker presented from a front loudspeaker(More)