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Spatial separation of speech and noise in an anechoic space creates a release from masking that often improves speech intelligibility. However, the masking release is severely reduced in reverberant spaces. This study investigated whether the distinct and separate localization of speech and interference provides any perceptual advantage that, due to the(More)
Three experiments were conducted to determine the extent to which perceived separation of speech and interference improves speech recognition in the free field. Target speech stimuli were 320 grammatically correct but nonmeaningful sentences spoken by a female talker. In the first experiment the interference was a recording of either one or two female(More)
Three experiments investigated factors that influence the creation of and release from informational masking in speech recognition. The target stimuli were nonsense sentences spoken by a female talker. In experiment 1 the masker was a mixture of three, four, six, or ten female talkers, all reciting similar nonsense sentences. Listeners' recognition(More)
OBJECTIVES A common complaint of many older adults is difficulty communicating in situations where they must focus on one talker in the presence of other people speaking. In listening environments containing multiple talkers, age-related changes may be caused by increased sensitivity to energetic masking, increased susceptibility to informational masking(More)
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the dependence of echo suppression on the auditory stimulation just prior to a test stimulus. Subjects sat in an anechoic chamber between two loudspeakers, one which presented the "lead" sound, and the other the delayed "lag" sound. In the first experiment, subjects reported whether or not they heard an echo(More)
The first author's right ear produces a spontaneous otoacoustic emission (SOAE) at 7529 Hz and 16 dB SPL. An external continuous tone is able to suppress the SOAE. The 3 dB iso-suppression curve is broadly tuned and displaced, relative to the SOAE, toward higher frequencies. An audiogram notch exists at frequencies just below that of the SOAE. We explain(More)
Frequency-discrimination thresholds, for a wide range of stimulus frequencies and stimulus levels, were obtained from three normal-hearing listeners. Linear regression analyses of the present data, and of data from two previous studies, indicate that an SL-1 transformation of stimulus level and a square root F transformation of stimulus frequency yield(More)
The ability to isolate a single sound source among concurrent sources and reverberant energy is necessary for understanding the auditory world. The precedence effect describes a related experimental finding, that when presented with identical sounds from two locations with a short onset asynchrony (on the order of milliseconds), listeners report a single(More)
Echo threshold increases with exposure to redundant trains of stimuli. Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that a change in the ongoing train would affect listeners' perception of the echo, but only if it signified an unusual change in room acoustics. The stimulus train was composed of 4-ms narrow-band noise bursts, with the leading(More)
When two identical stimuli are presented from two loudspeakers with a brief delay between them, a single image is heard near the source of the leading sound. The delayed sound or echo appears to be suppressed whereas the preceding sound determines perceived location, hence the name, the precedence effect. This study investigated normal-hearing listeners'(More)