Richard L. Edmonds

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The influence of mature trees on colonization of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings by ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) is not well understood. Here, the EMF communities of seedlings planted near and far from trees are compared with each other, with EMF of seedlings potted in field soils and with EMF of mature trees. Seedlings were planted within 6 m,(More)
Results from a systematic investigation of mercury (Hg) concentrations across 14 forest sites in the United States show highest concentrations in litter layers, strongly enriched in Hg compared to aboveground tissues and indicative of substantial postdepositional sorption of Hg. Soil Hg concentrations were lower than in litter, with highest concentrations(More)
Anaerobically digested dewatered sludge (10 to 15 cm thick) was applied to a forest clearcut as a fertilizer source in northwest Washington on gravelly glacial outwash soil. This sludge is not microbiologically sterile and may contain pathogenic organisms. Fecal coliform bacterial counts in sludge applied in summer (July) fell from 1.08 X 10(5) to 358/g in(More)
There is a large difference in strength between ovine and bovine leather. The structure and arrangement of fibrous collagen in leather and the relationship between collagen structure and leather strength has until now been poorly understood. Synchrotron based SAXS is used to characterize the fibrous collagen structure in a series of ovine and bovine(More)
The main structural component of leather and skin is type I collagen in the form of strong fibrils. Strength is an important property of leather, and the way in which collagen contributes to the strength is not fully understood. Synchrotron-based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is used to measure the collagen fibril diameter of leather from a range of(More)
Collagen is the main structural component of leather, skin, and some other applications such as medical scaffolds. All of these materials have a mechanical function, so the manner in which collagen provides them with their strength is of fundamental importance and was investigated here. This study shows that the tear strength of leather across seven species(More)
The distribution and effect of applied strain on the collagen fibrils that make up leather may have an important bearing on the ultimate strength and other physical properties of the material. While sections of ovine and bovine leather were being subjected to tensile strain up to rupture, synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) spectra were(More)
SAXS has been applied to structural determination in leather. The SAXS beamline at the Australian Synchrotron provides 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range, enabling a rich source of structural information from scattering patterns of leather sections. SAXS patterns were recorded for q from 0.004 to 0.223 A(-1). Collagen d spacing varied across ovine leather(More)
Variability of physical properties across hides and skins requires careful consideration when manufacturing goods from leather. Therefore, an understanding of the extent of this variation and its nanostructural basis is useful. Tear strength tests were performed on ovine leather from a grid of 81 positions on skins. Synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering(More)
As hides and skins are processed to produce leather, chemical and physical changes take place that affect the strength and other physical properties of the material. The structural basis of these changes at the level of the collagen fibrils is not fully understood and forms the basis of this investigation. Synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering(More)